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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
 
x
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                
Commission File Number 001-15283
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12724948&doc=21 Dine Brands Global, Inc. http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12724948&doc=25
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
 
95-3038279
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
450 North Brand Boulevard, Glendale, California
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
91203-2306
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (818) 240-6055
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, $.01 Par Value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§232.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer  o
 
 
 
      Non-accelerated filer  o
 
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
 
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No x
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2018: $1.26 billion.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
Class
 
 February 15, 2019
 
 
Common Stock, $.01 par value
 
17,533,991
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on Tuesday, May 14, 2019 (the “2019 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III.



DINE BRANDS GLOBAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
Table of Contents
 
Page
 
 
 
 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause actual results to be materially different from those expressed or implied in such statements. You can identify these forward-looking statements by words such as “may,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “goal” and other similar expressions. You should consider our forward-looking statements in light of the risks discussed under the heading “Risk Factors,” as well as our consolidated financial statements, related notes, and the other financial information appearing elsewhere in this report and our other filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. The forward-looking statements contained in this report are made as of the date hereof and the Company does not intend to, nor does it assume any obligation to, update or supplement any forward-looking statements after the date of this report to reflect actual results or future events or circumstances.
Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the projections, forecasts, estimates and expectations discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, among other things: general economic conditions; our level of indebtedness; compliance with the terms of our securitized debt; our ability to refinance our current indebtedness or obtain additional financing; our dependence on information technology; potential cyber incidents; the implementation of restaurant development plans; our dependence on our franchisees; the concentration of our Applebee’s franchised restaurants in a limited number of franchisees; the financial health of our franchisees; our franchisees’ and other licensees’ compliance with our quality

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standards and trademark usage; general risks associated with the restaurant industry; potential harm to our brands’ reputation; possible future impairment charges; the effects of tax reform; trading volatility and fluctuations in the price of our stock; our ability to achieve the financial guidance we provide to investors; successful implementation of our business strategy; the availability of suitable locations for new restaurants; shortages or interruptions in the supply or delivery of products from third parties or availability of utilities; the management and forecasting of appropriate inventory levels; development and implementation of innovative marketing and use of social media; changing health or dietary preference of consumers; risks associated with doing business in international markets; the results of litigation and other legal proceedings; third-party claims with respect to intellectual property assets; our ability to attract and retain management and other key employees; compliance with federal, state and local governmental regulations; risks associated with our self-insurance; natural disasters or other serious incidents; our success with development initiatives outside of our core business; the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting and future changes in accounting standards.

Fiscal Year End

We have a 52/53 week fiscal year ending on the Sunday nearest to December 31 of each year. For convenience, in this annual report on Form 10-K, we refer to all fiscal years as ending on December 31 and all interim fiscal quarters as ending on March 31, June 30 and September 30 of the respective fiscal year. There were 52 calendar weeks in our 2018, 2017 and 2016 fiscal years that ended on December 30, 2018, December 31, 2017, and January 1, 2017, respectively.


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PART I

Item 1.    Business
Dine Brands Global, Inc.SM, together with its subsidiaries (referred to as the “Company,” “Dine Brands Global,” “we,” “our” and “us”), owns, franchises and operates the Applebee's Neighborhood Grill + Bar® (“Applebee's”) concept in the bar and grill segment within the casual dining category of the restaurant industry and owns and franchises the International House of Pancakes® (“IHOP”) concept in the family dining category of the restaurant industry. References herein to Applebee's® and IHOP® restaurants are to these two restaurant concepts, whether operated by franchisees, area licensees and their sub-licensees or by us. As of December 31, 2018, the substantial majority of our 3,668 restaurants across both brands were franchised. We believe this highly franchised business model requires less capital investment and general and administrative overhead, generates higher gross profit margins and reduces the volatility of adjusted free cash flow performance, as compared to a business model based on owning a significant number of company-operated restaurants.
We generated revenue from five operating segments during the year ended December 31, 2018, comprised as follows:
Our two franchise operations (each a separate operating segment) - primarily royalties, advertising fees and other income from 1,768 Applebee’s franchised restaurants and 1,831 IHOP franchised and area licensed restaurants;
Rental operations - primarily rental income derived from lease or sublease agreements covering 676 IHOP franchised restaurants and one Applebee’s franchised restaurant;
Financing operations - primarily interest income from approximately $66 million of receivables for equipment leases and franchise fee notes generally associated with IHOP franchised restaurants developed before 2003; and
Company restaurant operations - retail sales from 69 Applebee's company restaurants we acquired from a former Applebee's franchisee in December 2018.
Most of our revenue is derived from domestic sources within these five operating segments, with approximately 82% of our total 2018 revenues being generated from our two franchise operating segments. Internationally, our restaurants are in 17 countries outside the United States and three United States territories. Revenue derived from all international operations comprised less than 3% of total consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. At December 31, 2018, there were no long-lived assets located outside of the United States. See Note 19 - Segment Reporting, of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report for additional segment information.
This report should be read in conjunction with the cautionary statements under “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Our Goal
Our goal is to accelerate profitable growth and create significant value for shareholders and franchisees.
Our Strategic Priorities
To build value, we seek to maximize our business by focusing on the following key strategic priorities:
Evolve strong brands and drive same-restaurant and system sales growth;
Facilitate franchisee restaurant development; and
Maintain strong financial discipline.
Our fundamental approach to brand building centers on a strategic combination of initiatives to continually innovate and evolve our existing brands as well as explore small investments in or acquisitions of new concepts. We intend to leverage our significant scale and our franchise business model to drive robust margins and cash flows. We are actively supporting our brands with focused teams that are responsible and accountable at the brand level to drive strong performance. In partnership with our franchisees, significant investments have been made and will continue to be made in marketing across traditional and digital channels to drive traffic to our restaurants. We are placing greater emphasis on quantitative analytics to leverage our favorable guest dynamics. We are investing in technology to create more ways for customers to access our brands and in new growth platforms such as on-line ordering, off premise business and delivery.
In executing on these strategic priorities, we recognize our responsibility to drive long-term stockholder value through ethical business practices. Our corporate social responsibility efforts are organized into the following categories: caring for the environment, supporting our neighborhoods and valuing our team members. For additional information, please refer to the Impact and Sustainability section of our website at www.dinebrands.com
We will continue to focus on generating strong adjusted free cash flow and returning a substantial portion of it to stockholders.

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Our History
The first IHOP restaurant opened in 1958 in Toluca Lake, California. Since that time, the Company and its predecessors have engaged in the development, franchising and operation of IHOP restaurants. Prior to 2003, new IHOP restaurants were generally developed by us, and we were involved in all aspects of the construction and financing of the restaurants. We typically identified and leased or purchased the restaurant sites for new company-developed IHOP restaurants, built and equipped the restaurants and then franchised them to franchisees. In addition, we typically financed as much as 80% of the franchise fee for periods ranging from five to eight years and leased the restaurant and equipment to the franchisee over a 25-year period. We refer to this as our “Previous IHOP Business Model,” which accounts for most of the activity in our rental and financing operations.
For most IHOP restaurants opened after 2003, the franchisee is primarily responsible for the development and financing of the restaurant. In general, we no longer provide any financing with respect to the franchise fee, restaurant site or equipment. The franchisee uses its own capital and financial resources along with third-party financial sources obtained by the franchisee to purchase or lease a restaurant site, build and equip the business and fund its working capital needs. We refer to this as our “Current IHOP Business Model.”
The first restaurant in what became the Applebee’s chain opened in 1980 in Decatur, Georgia. Applebee's International, Inc, (“AII”) became a public company in 1989, comprised of 100 restaurants. In November 2007, we completed the acquisition of AII, which comprised 1,455 franchised restaurants and 510 company-operated restaurants at the time of the acquisition.
Restaurant Concepts
Applebee's
We franchise and operate Applebee’s restaurants in the bar and grill segment within the casual dining category of the restaurant industry. As one of the world’s largest casual dining brands, Applebee’s Neighborhood Grill + Bar offers guests a dining experience that combines simple American fare with classic drinks and local drafts - all for a moderate price. Applebee's restaurants that are franchised are owned and operated by franchisees dedicated to the neighborhoods they serve.
We strive to provide genuine and neighborly service, appetizers, drinks and entrees and limited-time offers. Our menu features a selection of grill and bar fare, such as appetizers, bar snacks, burgers, classic entrees and lighter fare, as well as cocktails, beers and desserts. We continue to enhance our very popular “Eatin’ Good in the Neighborhood” positioning, with creative, targeted, occasion-based and insight-driven marketing initiatives, such as “All-You-Can-Eat Riblets, Tenders and Shrimp” and our Neighborhood drink of the month promotions that we kicked off with the first “Dollarita” promotion in October 2017. We offer “Lighter Plates with Great Taste” which include meals like the Shrimp Wonton Stir Fry or Cedar Grilled Lemon Chicken. Applebee's offers online ordering and Carside To-Go options, with delivery available through leading national service providers, such as DoorDash, Grubhub and Amazon Restaurants.
As of December 31, 2018, 56 franchise groups operated 1,768 Applebee’s franchise restaurants. We operated 69 Applebee's restaurants acquired from a former franchisee in December 2018. Applebee's restaurants were in all 50 states within the United States, two United States territories and 13 countries outside of the United States. The June 18, 2018 issue of Nation's Restaurant News reported Applebee's was the largest casual dining concept in terms of 2017 United States system-wide sales.
IHOP
We franchise restaurants in the family dining category of the restaurant industry under the names IHOP and International House of Pancakes. IHOP restaurants feature full table service and high quality, moderately priced food and beverage offerings in an attractive and comfortable family atmosphere. Although the restaurants are best known for their award-winning pancakes and putting an unexpected twist on “all things breakfast, any time of the day,” IHOP is committed to accelerating growth through menu innovation, daypart expansion, off-premise initiatives and development. Focused on meeting the needs of today’s guest, IHOP leverages industry analytics and brand-specific insights to help effectively drive positive behaviors, including increased frequency and check averages.
IHOP restaurants are open throughout the day and evening hours. Approximately half of IHOP restaurants operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week, with 225 additional restaurants operating 24 hours a day for some portion of the week. We announced the most comprehensive remodel program in our brand’s 60-year history, “Rise ‘N’ Shine,” in late 2015. Since starting the program in 2016, our domestic franchisees have remodeled 890 of their restaurants. Including new restaurants opened in the past three years, approximately two-thirds of our domestic IHOP franchise restaurants reflect the new, contemporary look. We remain committed to giving more people, more reasons to enjoy more IHOP, more often. Placing an emphasis on building its IHOP ‘N’ Go business, IHOP introduced an online ordering platform, a mobile app, and a national delivery program with leading service providers including DoorDash, Grubhub, and Amazon Restaurants this year.

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As of December 31, 2018, 319 franchise groups operated 1,831 IHOP franchise and area license restaurants. These restaurants were in all 50 states within the United States, in the District of Columbia, in three United States territories and 12 countries outside of the United States. We no longer operate any company-owned restaurants, but we may operate, on a temporary basis until refranchised, IHOP restaurants that we reacquire for a variety of reasons from IHOP franchisees. The June 18, 2018 issue of Nation's Restaurant News reported IHOP was the largest family dining concept in terms of 2017 United States system-wide sales.
See Item 2 - Properties, for the geographic location of all Applebee’s and IHOP restaurants.

Franchising

Franchisee Relationships

We highly value good relationships with our IHOP and Applebee's franchisees and strive to maintain positive working relationships with them. For several years, IHOP and Applebee’s franchisees have participated in Company-sponsored advisory groups. These groups provide a forum for franchisees to share demonstrated best practices, offer counsel and review successful strategies, while working side-by-side with management of the Applebee's and IHOP brands. Applebee’s sponsors its Franchise Brand Council (“FBC”), which consists of eight franchisee representatives. One franchisee representative, the founder of Applebee's, is a member for life, while the other franchisee representatives are elected by our franchisees. IHOP sponsors its Franchise Leadership Council (“FLC”), an elected and appointed body of 12 IHOP franchisees. The Applebee's FBC and the IHOP FLC assist Applebee's and IHOP senior management in key areas of the business and strategy, including brand marketing, operations, restaurant development, information technology, menu, and innovation.
Franchise Agreements and Fees
Franchise arrangements for Applebee's restaurants typically consist of a development agreement and a separate franchise agreement for each restaurant. Development agreements grant to the franchisee the exclusive right to develop Applebee's restaurants within a designated geographical area over a specified period of time. The term of a domestic development agreement is generally 20 years. The development agreements typically provide for initial development periods of one to five years as agreed upon by us and the franchisee. At or shortly prior to the completion of the initial development schedule or any subsequent supplemental development schedule, we and the franchisee may execute supplemental development schedules providing for the development of additional Applebee's restaurants in the franchisee's exclusive territory.
Prior to the opening of each new Applebee's restaurant, we enter into a separate franchise agreement with the franchisee for that restaurant. Our current standard domestic Applebee's franchise agreement provides for an initial term of 20 years and provides an option for four successive renewal terms, in five-year increments, for up to an additional 20 years, upon payment of an additional franchise fee. Our current standard domestic Applebee's franchise arrangement calls for a development fee equal to $10,000 for each Applebee's restaurant that the franchisee contracts to develop and an initial franchisee fee of $35,000 for each restaurant developed (against which the $10,000 development fee will be credited) and a royalty fee equal to 4% of the restaurant's monthly gross sales. Our agreements for most Applebee's restaurants opened before January 1, 2000, provide for a royalty rate of 4%, while the terms, royalty rate and advertising fees under a limited number of franchise agreements and other franchise fees under older development agreements vary from the currently offered arrangements.
Under the Current IHOP Business Model, a potential franchisee that is approved first enters into a single-restaurant franchise agreement, a single-restaurant development agreement, or a multi-restaurant development agreement with us and is responsible for the development and financing of one or more new IHOP franchised restaurants. Our current standard domestic IHOP franchise agreement typically provides for an initial term of 20 years and permits one renewal for a term of 10 years, upon payment of a renewal fee of $10,000.
The revenues we receive from a typical domestic franchise development arrangement under the Current IHOP Business Model include (a) a location fee equal to $15,000 for an IHOP restaurant that the franchisee contracts to develop upon execution of a single-restaurant development agreement; (b) a development fee equal to $20,000 for each IHOP restaurant that the franchisee contracts to develop upon execution of a multi-restaurant development agreement; (c) an initial franchise fee equal to (i) $40,000 (against which the $20,000 development fee will be credited) for each restaurant developed under a multi-restaurant development agreement, (ii) $50,000 (against which the $15,000 location fee will be credited) for a restaurant developed under a single-restaurant development agreement or (iii) $50,000 for a restaurant opened pursuant to a single-restaurant franchise agreement, in each case paid upon execution of the franchise agreement; (d) franchise royalties equal to 4.5% of weekly gross sales; (e) revenue from the sale of our proprietary pancake and waffle dry-mixes; and (f) franchise advertising fees.
The principal commercial terms of the franchise arrangements under the Previous IHOP Business Model and the Current IHOP Business Model, including the franchise royalties and the franchise advertising fees, are substantially the same except

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with respect to the terms relating to the franchise fee, lease or sublease rents for the restaurant property and building, and interest income from any franchise fee notes and equipment leases.
Development of Applebee’s and IHOP restaurants outside of the United States has historically been conducted through a separate development agreement and franchise agreement. More recently, certain franchisees have entered into a multi-unit franchise agreement that governs the rights and obligations to develop a territory, in addition to terms of operating each restaurant opened in the territory. The term of a franchisee’s exclusive right to develop a territory expires when the agreement’s development schedule is completed. The term to operate the restaurant is typically 20 years, subject to applicable renewals.
In limited instances, we have agreed to accept reduced royalties and/or lease payments from franchisees or have provided other accommodations to franchisees for specified periods of time to assist them in either establishing or reinvigorating their businesses. We have the contractual right, subject to applicable law, to terminate a development and franchise agreement for a variety of reasons, such as a franchisee’s failure to make required payments when due, failure to timely develop restaurants and failure to adhere to specified brand policies and standards.
Advertising Fees
We currently require domestic franchisees of Applebee's restaurants to contribute 3.25% of their gross sales to a national advertising fund, which funds the development of national promotions, television and radio commercials and print advertising materials. Applebee's franchisees are also required to spend at least 0.5% of their gross sales on local marketing and promotional activities. Under the current Applebee's franchise agreements, we have the ability to increase the amount of the required combined contribution to the national advertising fund and the amount required to be spent on local marketing and promotional activities to a maximum of 5% of gross sales. All domestic Applebee’s franchisees have entered into an amendment to their franchise agreements to increase their contribution to the Applebee's national advertising fund (the “Applebee’s NAF”), with virtually all agreeing to a 0.25% increase to 3.50% of their gross sales and a decrease to their minimum local promotional expenditures to 0.25% of their gross sales for the period from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019. Such franchisees also agreed to an incremental temporary increase of 0.75% in the advertising contribution rate to 4.25% effective July 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019.
IHOP franchisees allocate a percentage of their sales to local advertising cooperatives and a national advertising fund (the “IHOP NAF”). The IHOP franchise agreements generally provide for advertising fees comprised of (i) a local advertising fee generally equal to 2.0% of weekly gross sales under the franchise agreement, which is typically used to cover the cost of local media purchases and other local advertising expenses incurred by a local advertising cooperative, and (ii) a national advertising fee equal to 1.0% of weekly gross sales under the franchise agreement. Area licensees are generally required to pay lesser amounts toward advertising.
The local IHOP advertising cooperatives have historically used advertising fees for various local marketing programs. The IHOP NAF is primarily used for buying media and national advertising, in addition to the related production costs. The IHOP NAF is also used to defray certain expenses associated with our marketing and advertising functions.
Beginning in 2005, and every year thereafter, we and the IHOP franchisees agreed to reallocate portions of the local advertising fees to purchase national broadcast, syndication and cable television time to reach our target audience more frequently and more cost effectively.
In 2014, we and franchisees whose restaurants account for a large majority of total annual contributions to the IHOP NAF entered into franchise agreement amendments that increased the advertising contribution percentage of those restaurants' gross sales. Pursuant to the amendment, for the period from June 30, 2014 to December 31, 2014, 2.74% of each participating restaurant's gross sales was contributed to the IHOP NAF and 0.76% was contributed to local advertising cooperatives. For the period from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017, 3.50% of each participating restaurant's gross sales was contributed to the IHOP NAF with no significant contribution to local advertising cooperatives required. The amended advertising contribution percentage was also applicable to all new franchise agreements and to IHOP company-operated restaurants open at the time. In 2016, we and franchisees whose restaurants account for a large majority of total annual contributions to the IHOP NAF extended this additional contribution through 2022. The current IHOP franchise agreements generally provide for advertising fees comprised of (i) a local advertising fee equal to 0% of gross sales under the franchise agreement, and (ii) a national advertising fee equal to 3.5% of weekly gross sales under the franchise agreement. Commencing on January 1, 2023, the local advertising fee and the national advertising fee are subject to change.

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IHOP Area License Agreements
We have entered into three long-term area license agreements for IHOP restaurants covering the state of Florida and certain counties in the state of Georgia, the province of British Columbia, Canada and the country of Pakistan. The area license agreements provide the licensees with the right to develop and franchise new IHOP restaurants in their respective territories and provide for royalties ranging from 1.0% to 4.5% of gross sales and advertising fees ranging from 0.25% to approximately 2.0% of gross sales. During 2014, the advertising fee contribution provisions of the Florida area license agreement were amended for the period through December 31, 2017 on substantially similar terms as the franchise agreement amendment described above and such amendments were subsequently extended through 2022. We also derive revenues from the sale of proprietary products to these area licensees and, in certain instances, to their sub-franchisees. Revenues from our area licensees are included in franchise operations revenues.
As of December 31, 2018, the area licensee for the state of Florida and certain counties in Georgia operated or sub-franchised a total of 150 IHOP restaurants. The area licensee for the province of British Columbia, Canada operated or sub-franchised a total of 12 IHOP restaurants. The area licensee for the country of Pakistan is required to open its first IHOP restaurant in 2019. The area license for British Columbia expires in 2026. The area license for Florida and Georgia expires in 2120. The area license for Pakistan expires in 2027.
Other Franchise-related Revenues and Fees

Approximately 90% of franchise segment revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 consisted of Applebee's and IHOP royalties and advertising revenue. Most of the remaining 10% consisted of sales of proprietary products (primarily IHOP pancake and waffle dry-mix), initial franchise and renewal fees and software maintenance and support fees. Depending on circumstances, we may seek to recover a portion of any royalties and fees lost due to early termination of a franchise agreement; however, not all franchise restaurant closures necessarily result in our receipt of such fees.
International Franchising
We continue to pursue international franchising of the Applebee's and the IHOP concepts. To this end, we seek qualified franchisees that possess the financial, development and operational resources needed to open multiple restaurants in each territory and are experienced in conducting business in the development territory. We work closely with our international franchisees to develop and implement the Applebee's and IHOP systems outside the United States, recognizing commercial, cultural and dietary diversity. Differences in tastes and cultural norms and standards require that we be flexible and pragmatic regarding many elements of the Applebee's and IHOP systems, including menu, restaurant design, restaurant operations, training, marketing, purchasing and financing.
The success of further international expansion will depend on, among other things, local acceptance of the Applebee's and IHOP concepts and menu offerings and our ability to attract qualified franchisees and operating personnel. Our franchisees must comply with the regulatory requirements of the local jurisdictions.
Domestic and International Franchise Restaurant Development
Each franchisee is responsible for selecting the site for each new restaurant. We may consult with franchisees when they are selecting appropriate sites, and selections made by franchisees are subject to our approval. We also conduct a physical inspection, review any proposed lease or purchase agreement for compliance with our requirements and may make available to franchisees demographic and other studies for domestic restaurants. We make the design specifications for a typical restaurant available to franchisees, and we retain the right to prohibit or modify the use of any set of plans.
As of December 31, 2018, we had signed commitments from IHOP franchisees to build 290 IHOP restaurants over the next 15 years, comprised of five restaurants under single restaurant or non-traditional development agreements, 153 restaurants under domestic multi-restaurant development agreements and 132 restaurants under international development agreements. We announced agreements in 2018 that will bring the first IHOP restaurants to South America, with agreements signed for the development of 25 IHOP restaurants in Peru and 12 restaurants in Ecuador. The signed agreements include options to build an additional 35 restaurants over the next 12 years, primarily under domestic multi-restaurant development agreements. As of December 31, 2018, Applebee’s development agreements in place call for the opening of 34 international restaurants over the next 10 years. While Applebee's also has domestic development agreements in place, we do not expect a significant number of Applebee's restaurants will be opened domestically in the near future. Developers’ level of compliance with development obligations vary per year and could change and, therefore, may not be a reliable indicator of future development activity for any given period of time.

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Franchise Operations
We continuously monitor franchise restaurant operations. Company and third-party representatives make both scheduled and unannounced inspections of franchised restaurants to ensure that only approved products are in use and that our prescribed operations practices and procedures are being followed. We have the right to terminate a franchise agreement if a franchisee does not operate and maintain a restaurant in accordance with our requirements. Due to cultural and regulatory differences, we may have different requirements for restaurants opened outside of the United States. We also monitor the financial health of our franchisees through business and financial reviews.
Composition of Franchise Systems

As of December 31, 2018, 34 Applebee’s franchisees owned a total of 1,624 domestic Applebee's restaurants. The number of domestic restaurants held by a single franchisee ranged from one restaurant to 459 restaurants. As of December 31, 2018, 22 franchisees owned a total of 144 international Applebee's restaurants. The number of international restaurants held by a single franchisee ranged from one restaurant to 22 restaurants. Our five largest Applebee’s franchisees owned 50% of the total 1,768 Applebee's restaurants.

As of December 31, 2018, 297 franchisees owned a total of 1,705 domestic IHOP restaurants, including 125 franchisees that each owned one restaurant. The largest single IHOP franchisee owned 299 domestic restaurants. As of December 31, 2018, 22 franchisees owned a total of 126 international IHOP franchise restaurants. The number of international restaurants held by a single franchisee ranged from one restaurant to 34 restaurants. Our five largest IHOP franchisees owned 31% of the total 1,831 IHOP restaurants.
Company-Operated Restaurants
At the beginning of fiscal 2018, we did not operate any restaurants of either brand on a permanent basis. In December 2018, we acquired 69 Applebee's restaurants in North and South Carolina from a former Applebee's franchisee. While we currently intend to own and operate these restaurants for the near term, we will assess and monitor opportunities to refranchise these restaurants under favorable circumstances. We believe this transaction was a unique circumstance and should not be considered a change in our business strategy.
Our business strategy includes the addition of new brands to our restaurant portfolio through mergers and acquisitions, which may result in our acquiring additional company-operated restaurants.
From time to time, we also may reacquire a very small number of restaurants from franchisees for a variety of reasons. Historically, we have been able to quickly refranchise these restaurants to new franchisees. When reacquired restaurants are not quickly refranchised, we typically operate the reacquired restaurants until they can be refranchised. These temporarily reacquired restaurants may require investments in remodeling and rehabilitation before they can be refranchised. As a result, a reacquired restaurant may incur operating losses for some period of time.
Supply Chain
In February 2009, Centralized Supply Chain Services, LLC (“CSCS” or the “Co-op”), an independent cooperative entity, was formed by us and franchisees of Applebee's and IHOP domestic restaurants. CSCS has been appointed as the sole authorized purchasing organization and purchasing agent for goods, equipment and distribution services for Applebee's and IHOP restaurants in the United States. As of December 31, 2018, 100% of Applebee's domestic franchise restaurants and slightly less than 100% of IHOP domestic franchise restaurants were members of CSCS.
CSCS combines the purchasing volume for goods, equipment and distribution services within and across the Applebee's and IHOP concepts. Its mission is to achieve for its members the benefit of continuously available goods, higher quality equipment and distribution services in adequate quantities at the lowest possible sustainable prices. We do not control CSCS, but do have contractual rights associated with supplier certification, quality assurance and protection of our intellectual property. The operations of CSCS are funded by a separately stated administrative fee added to one or more products purchased by operators.
We believe the larger scale provided by combining the supply chain requirements of both brands provides continuing cost savings and efficiencies while helping to ensure compliance with our quality and safety standards.
Industry Overview and Competition
Applebee's and IHOP are among the numerous restaurant chains and independent restaurants competing in the restaurant industry in the United States. The restaurant industry is generally categorized into segments by price point ranges, the types of food and beverages offered and the types of service available to customers. These segments include, among others, fast food or

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quick service restaurants (“QSR”), fast-casual dining, family dining, casual dining and fine dining. Casual dining restaurants offer full table service and typically have bars or serve liquor, wine and beer, while family dining restaurants offer full table service, typically do not have bars or serve liquor, and usually offer breakfast in addition to lunch and dinner items.
Applebee's competes in the casual dining segment against national and multi-state restaurant chains such as Olive Garden, Buffalo Wild Wings, Chili's Grill & Bar, Outback Steakhouse and Texas Roadhouse, among others, as well as fast-casual restaurant chains. In addition, there are many independent restaurants across the country in the casual dining segment. The June 18, 2018 issue of Nation's Restaurant News reported that Applebee's was the largest casual dining concept in terms of 2017 United States system-wide sales.
IHOP competes in the family dining segment against national and multi-state restaurant chains such as Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Denny's, Golden Corral, Waffle House and Bob Evans Restaurants. IHOP also faces competition from QSR restaurant chains and fast-casual restaurant chains that serve breakfast. In addition, there are many independent restaurants and diners across the country in the family dining segment. The June 18, 2018 issue of Nation's Restaurant News reported that IHOP was the largest family dining concept in terms of 2017 United States system-wide sales.
The restaurant and related food-service industries are highly competitive and are affected by, among other things, economic conditions, price levels, on-going changes in eating habits and food preferences, population trends and traffic patterns. The principal bases of competition in the industry are the type, quality and price of the food products served. Restaurant location, quality and speed of service, advertising, name identification and attractiveness of facilities are important. Additionally, changes in the price of groceries may influence the attractiveness of dining at home versus dining out.
The market for high quality commercial real estate is also very competitive. We and our franchisees compete with other restaurant chains and retail businesses for suitable sites for the development of new restaurants. We also compete against other franchisors both within and outside the restaurant industry for new franchisees. For further information regarding competition, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.
Trademarks and Service Marks
We and our affiliates have registered or submitted registrations for certain trademarks and service marks with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and various international jurisdictions, including “Dine Brands GlobalSM.” We own trademarks and service marks used in the Applebee's system, including various logos and the trademarks “Applebee's®,” “Applebee's Neighborhood Grill + Bar®” and variations of each. In addition, we own trademarks and service marks used in the IHOP system, including various logos and the trademarks “IHOP®,” “International House of Pancakes®” and variations of each.
We consider our trademarks and service marks important to the identification of our company and our restaurants and believe they are of material importance to the conduct of our business. Depending upon the jurisdiction, trademarks and service marks generally are valid as long as they are used and/or registered. We generally intend to renew our trademarks and service marks as they come up for renewal. We own or have rights to all trademarks we believe are material to our restaurant operations. In addition, we have registered various domain names on the Internet that incorporate certain of our trademarks and service marks and believe these domain name registrations are an integral part of our identity. From time to time, we may take appropriate legal action to defend and protect the use of our intellectual property.
Information Technology
We use in-house developed and third-party point of sale systems, kitchen data systems, and back-of-the house systems for accounting, labor and inventory management in our franchisees' restaurants.  In addition, we have several consumer-facing technology initiatives focused on improving our customers' experience. Sales and product mix information is transmitted to our restaurant support centers daily and this information supports our operations and marketing initiatives.  We mitigate the potential impact from operational interruption of our information technology systems through a disaster recovery plan that is updated on a regular basis. We believe that technology is and will continue to be a key component of our long-term plans and are committed to providing system stability and targeted innovation.  Our use of technology, particularly in terms of managing electronic payments and confidential information, also represents security and operational risks that we must manage and may result in additional costs incurred.

Protection of financial and personal information is a high priority for us, led by our Cybersecurity Department with a committee representing key functional areas. We continuously focus on enhancing our cybersecurity capabilities, educating our team members on cybersecurity importance, and managing our cyber risks. In addition, we participate in annual audits of our financial and human resources systems to verify that measures are in place to protect our employees' personally identifiable information.  We accept credit cards, third party gift cards, and branded gift cards as payment in our restaurants.   We submit our systems to regular audit and review, as required by the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”), including periodic scanning of our networks to check for vulnerability.  To further secure customers' payment data, we worked

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with our franchisees to deploy and implement encryption and tokenization technologies, ensuring credit card data is not stored in our franchisees' and our restaurants systems. This includes installation of equipment to improve authentication and to prevent fraud using EMV (Europay, Mastercard, Visa) technology. We and our franchisees are required to comply, and are responsible for maintaining compliance, with PCI DSS, and we regularly communicate and encourage our franchisees to maintain compliance and to manage risk. For further information regarding Information Technology, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.
Seasonality
We do not consider our operations to be seasonal to any material degree. We do experience a slight increase in system-wide sales in the first quarter due to redemptions of gift cards sold during the December holiday season. Over the past five years, 26% of our annual system-wide sales (retail sales reported to us by our franchisees plus sales at our company-operated restaurants) occurred in the first quarter of the fiscal year. Sales at restaurants owned by franchisees are not attributable to the Company.
Government Regulation
We are subject to regulation by the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and a number of foreign and state laws that regulate the offer and sale of franchises. We also are subject to a number of foreign and state laws that regulate substantive aspects of the franchisor-franchisee relationship. The FTC's Trade Regulation Rule on Franchising, as amended (the “FTC Rule”), requires us to furnish to prospective domestic franchisees a Franchise Disclosure Document containing information prescribed by the FTC Rule.
State laws that regulate the offer and sale of franchises and the franchisor-franchisee relationship presently exist in a number of states and some of these laws require registration of the franchise offering with state authorities. Those states that regulate the franchise relationship generally require that the franchisor deal with its franchisees in good faith, prohibit interference with the right of free association among franchisees, limit the imposition of unreasonable standards of performance on a franchisee and regulate discrimination against franchisees with respect to charges, royalty fees or other fees. Although such laws may restrict a franchisor in the termination and/or non-renewal of a franchise agreement by, for example, requiring "good cause" to exist as a basis for the termination and/or non-renewal, advance notice to the franchisee of the termination or non-renewal, an opportunity to cure a default and a repurchase of inventory or other compensation upon termination, these provisions have not historically had a significant effect on our franchise operations.
Each restaurant is subject to licensing and regulation by a number of governmental authorities, which may include liquor license authorities (primarily in the case of Applebee's restaurants), health, sanitation, safety, fire, building and other agencies in the state or municipality in which the restaurant is located. We are also subject to new laws and regulations, which may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, relating to nutritional content and menu labeling.
More stringent and varied requirements of local governmental bodies with respect to zoning, land use and environmental factors could delay or prevent the development of new restaurants in particular areas.
Various federal and state labor laws govern our relationship with employees and our franchisees' relationship with their own employees. These include such matters as minimum wage requirements, overtime and other working requirements and conditions. Significant additional government-imposed increases in minimum wages, paid leaves of absence, mandated health benefits or increased tax reporting and tax payment requirements with respect to employees who receive gratuities could be detrimental to the economic viability of company restaurants and our franchisees' restaurants.
We are subject to a number of privacy and data protection laws and regulations globally. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve, and there has been increased attention in privacy and data protection issues. This has the potential to affect directly our business, including recently enacted laws and regulations in the United States and internationally requiring notification to individuals and government authorities of security breaches involving certain categories of personal information.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 (the “ACA”) are far-reaching and are intended to expand access to health insurance coverage over time by adjusting the eligibility thresholds for most state Medicaid programs and providing certain other individuals and small businesses with tax credits to subsidize a portion of the cost of health insurance coverage. The laws include a requirement that most individuals obtain health insurance coverage and a requirement that certain large employers offer coverage to their employees or pay a financial penalty. In October 2017, the President of the United States of America issued an executive order titled “Promoting Healthcare Choice and Competition Across the United States.” We do not know how our franchisees will be affected (if at all) by this executive order. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has increased our franchisees' employee costs in some respects and may continue to do so.

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In recent years, there has been an increased legislative, regulatory and consumer focus at the federal, state and municipal levels on the food industry including nutrition and advertising practices. Restaurants operating in the quick-service and fast-casual segments have been a particular focus. In addition to the United States Food and Drug Administration’s menu labeling requirements for restaurants requiring that chain restaurants include calorie information on their menus or make other nutritional information available, a number of other jurisdictions around the United States have adopted regulations related to disclosure of other information, such as sodium content, and imposing requirements for children's menus. Initiatives in the area of nutrition disclosure or advertising, such as requirements to provide information about the nutritional content of our food, may result in increased costs of compliance with the requirements and may also change customer buying habits in a way that adversely impacts our sales. For further information regarding governmental regulation, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to federal and state environmental regulations, but historically these have not had a material effect on our operations. We are not aware of any federal, state or local environmental laws or regulations that are likely to materially impact our revenues, cash flow or competitive position, or result in any material capital expenditure. However, we cannot predict the effect of possible future environmental legislation or regulations.
Employees
At December 31, 2018, we had approximately 3,300 employees, of which approximately 560 were full-time, non-restaurant corporate employees. Our employees are not presently represented by any collective bargaining agreements and we have never experienced a work stoppage. We believe our relations with employees are good. Our franchisees are independent business owners and their employees are not our employees. Therefore, their employees are not included in our employee count.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1976 with the name IHOP Corp. In November 2007, we completed the acquisition of Applebee’s, which became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. Effective June 2, 2008, we changed our name to DineEquity, Inc. and on February 20, 2018, we changed our name to Dine Brands Global, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 450 North Brand Boulevard, Glendale, California 91203-2306 and our telephone number is (818) 240-6055. Our Internet address is www.dinebrands.com. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and trades under the ticker symbol “DIN.”

Available Information

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those reports filed with or furnished to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such material with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains periodic reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding our filings at www.sec.gov. The above references to our website and the SEC’s website do not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on those websites and should not be considered part of this document.


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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
This Item 1A includes forward-looking statements. You should refer to our discussion of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements included in Item 7.

The occurrence of any of the events discussed in the following risk factors may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, which may materially adversely affect the value of our common stock. It is not possible to identify or predict all risk factors. There may be risks and uncertainties that are not currently known or that are currently deemed by us to be immaterial. These other risks and uncertainties may also impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is affected by general economic conditions that are largely out of our control. Our business is dependent to a significant extent on national, regional and local economic conditions, and, to a lesser extent, on global economic conditions, particularly those conditions affecting the demographics of the guests that frequently patronize Applebee's or IHOP restaurants. If our customers' disposable income available for discretionary spending is reduced (because of circumstances such as job losses, credit constraints, higher housing costs, changes to tax regulations, energy costs, interest rates or other costs) or if the perceived wealth of customers decreases (because of circumstances such as lower residential real estate values, increased foreclosure rates, changes to tax regulations or other economic disruptions), our business could experience a decline in sales and/or customer traffic as potential customers choose lower-cost alternatives (such as quick-service restaurants) or other alternatives to dining out. Additionally, negative trends in the availability of credit and in expenses such as interest rates and the cost of construction materials could affect our and our franchisees' ability to maintain and remodel existing restaurants. Any decreases in customer traffic or average customer check due to these or other reasons could reduce gross sales at our and our franchised restaurants, resulting in lower revenues, royalty payments and other payments from franchisees. This could negatively impact the financial performance of our company-operated restaurants and reduce the profitability of franchised restaurants, potentially impacting the ability of franchisees to make royalty payments owed to us when due and negatively impacting franchisees’ ability to develop new restaurants as may be required in their respective development agreements.
 
Our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our debt. As of December 31, 2018, certain of our indirect, wholly-owned subsidiaries had approximately $1.3 billion of long-term debt. In addition, we had approximately $0.1 billion in financing and capital lease obligations as of December 31, 2018. Our level of indebtedness and the financial and other restrictive covenants in our indebtedness could have important consequences to our financial health. For example, it could:

make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt or refinance any of our debt on attractive terms, commercially reasonable terms, or at all;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions or a downturn in our business;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to debt service, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to pay dividends to our stockholders, repurchase shares of our common stock, fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are not as highly leveraged;
limit our ability to borrow additional funds;
prevent us from taking actions that we believe would be in the best interest of our business and make it difficult for us to successfully execute our business strategy;
subject us to risks associated with rising interest rates and uncertainty related to the proposed phase-out of the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR); and
result in an event of default if we fail to satisfy our obligations under our debt or fail to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in our debt documents, which event of default could result in all of our debt becoming immediately due and payable and could permit certain of our lenders to foreclose on our assets securing such debt.

In addition, we may incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could increase.


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The terms of the securitized debt issued by certain of our indirect, wholly-owned subsidiaries have restrictive terms and the failure to comply with such restrictive terms could put us in default, which would have an adverse effect on our business and prospects. Unless and until we repay all outstanding borrowings under our securitized debt, we will remain subject to the restrictive terms of the securitized debt issued by certain of our indirect, wholly-owned subsidiaries. For example, the indenture entered into by such subsidiaries in connection with the securitized debt contains covenants that limit the ability of certain of our wholly-owned subsidiaries to, among other things: sell assets; alter the business conducted by such subsidiaries; engage in mergers or acquisitions; declare dividends or redeem or purchase certain equity interests; incur, assume or permit to exist additional indebtedness or guarantees; make loans and investments; incur liens; and enter into transactions with affiliates other than on an arms-length basis. These covenants are applicable only to the securitization subsidiaries and do not apply to any of Dine Brands Global, Inc., International House of Pancakes, LLC, Applebee’s International, Inc. or Dine Brands International, Inc. as these entities are not a party to the indenture. A breach of a covenant could result in a rapid amortization event or default under the securitized debt.

Further, the securitized debt also includes limitations on our ability to incur additional indebtedness and contains a number of financial performance measures that must be met to avoid a possible rapid amortization event or event of default. The most significant of these measures include a minimum debt service coverage ratio and minimum domestic franchise system sales. The ability to meet these financial performance measures can be affected by events beyond our control and there can be no assurance that we will satisfy these financial measures.

If amounts owed under the securitized debt are accelerated because of a default and we are unable to pay such amounts, the investors may have the right to assume control of substantially all of the securitized assets, which consist of substantially all of our domestic revenue-generating assets and domestic intellectual property.

During the seven-year term following issuance, the outstanding fixed-rate senior notes will accrue interest at a rate of 4.277% per year. Additionally, the fixed-rate senior notes have scheduled quarterly principal amortization payments of $3.25 million. If we maintain a leverage ratio of less than or equal to 5.25x total debt to adjusted EBITDA, we may elect to not make the scheduled principal payments. From time to time, our leverage ratio has exceeded the 5.25x total debt to adjusted EBITDA ratio and we have made the required scheduled principal payments. If we are unable to refinance or repay amounts under the securitized debt prior to the expiration of the seven-year term, our cash flow would be directed to the repayment of the securitized debt and, other than a weekly management fee sufficient to cover minimal selling, general and administrative expenses, would not be available for operating our business.

In the event that a rapid amortization event occurs under the indenture (including, without limitation, upon an event of default under the indenture or the failure to repay the securitized debt at the end of the seven-year term), the funds available to us would be reduced or eliminated, which would in turn reduce our ability to operate or grow our business.

Our ability to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing depends on many factors beyond our control. No assurance can be given that any refinancing or additional financing will be possible when needed or that we will be able to negotiate favorable terms. In addition, our access to capital is affected by prevailing conditions in the financial and capital markets and other factors beyond our control. There can be no assurance that market conditions will be favorable at the times that we require new or additional financing. Further, changes by any rating agency to our credit rating may negatively impact the value and liquidity of both our debt and equity securities, as well as the potential costs associated with refinancing our debt. Downgrades in our credit ratings could also affect the terms of any such financing and restrict our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

We are heavily dependent on information technology and any material failure of that technology could impair our ability to effectively and efficiently operate our business.  We rely heavily on information technology systems across our operations, including point-of-sale processing in our and our franchisees' restaurants, online ordering and delivery, management of our supply chain, collection of cash and other receivables, payment of obligations and various other processes and procedures. Our ability to effectively and efficiently manage our business depends significantly on the reliability and capacity of these systems. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, problems with maintenance, upgrades or the transition to replacement systems, inaccurate or fraudulent manipulation of sales reporting from our restaurants resulting in loss of sales and royalty payments, or a breach in security of these systems could be harmful and cause delays in customer service, reduce efficiency in our operations and negatively impact our business. Significant capital investment might be required to remediate any problems.

In addition, we outsource certain essential technology-based business processes to third-party vendors and we may share sensitive financial and other information with third party vendors which subjects us to risks, including disruptions in business, increased costs and exposure to data breaches or privacy law compliance issues of our third-party vendors.

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The occurrence of cyber incidents, or a deficiency in our cybersecurity, could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our employee and business relationships, all of which could subject us to loss and harm our brands. A cyber incident is considered to be any adverse event that threatens the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of our information resources. More specifically, a cyber incident is an intentional attack or an unintentional event that can include gaining unauthorized access to systems to disrupt operations, corrupt data, or steal confidential information about our customers, franchisees, vendors and employees. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our systems, both internal and those that we have outsourced. Primary adverse events that could directly result from the occurrence of a cyber incident include (i) exposure of confidential data about our customers, franchisees, vendors and employees, (ii) damage to the reputation of our brands (iii) damage to our relationship with our franchisees; (iv) interruption of our business; and (v) an event of default under our securitized debt agreements if a cybersecurity breach impacts our ability to comply with the terms of securitized debt agreements. We, our franchisees, third-party vendors and others with whom we may do business or interact with may have inadequate cyber liability insurance or coverage terms may be restrictive or insufficient to cover potential losses and remediation costs associated with a cyber attack.

As a merchant and service provider of point of sale related services, we and our franchisees are subject to PCI DSS, issued by the Payment Card Industry Council. PCI DSS contains compliance guidelines and standards with regard to our security surrounding the physical and electronic storage, processing and transmission of individual cardholder data. Despite our cybersecurity measures and our efforts to comply with PCI DSS guidelines, we cannot be certain that all of our information technology systems are able to prevent, contain or detect any cyber-attacks or security breaches from known malware or malware that may be developed in the future.

Our use of personally identifiable information is regulated by international, federal and state laws, as well as by certain third-party agreements. If our security and information systems are compromised or if our employees or franchisees fail to comply with these laws and regulations, and this information is obtained by unauthorized persons or used inappropriately, it could adversely affect our reputation and could disrupt our operations and result in costly litigation, judgments, or penalties resulting from violation of federal and state laws and payment card industry regulations. As privacy and information security laws and regulations change, we may incur additional costs to ensure that we remain in compliance with those laws and regulations.

Restaurant development plans under development agreements may not be implemented effectively and developed restaurants may not achieve desired results. We rely on franchisees to develop Applebee's and IHOP restaurants. From time to time, our franchisees have failed to fulfill their commitments to build new restaurants in the numbers and within the timeframes required by their development agreements, and we expect that this will continue to varying degrees in the future. Restaurant development and the success of restaurants opened by our franchisees involve substantial risks, including the following:

the demand for Applebee’s and IHOP restaurants and the selection of appropriate franchisee candidates;
costs of construction, permit issuance and regulatory compliance;
the availability of suitable locations and terms for potential development sites, including lease or purchase terms for new locations;
the availability of financing, at acceptable rates and terms, to both franchisees and third-party landlords, for restaurant development and/or implementation of our business strategy through new remodel programs and other operational changes;
delays in obtaining construction permits and in completion of construction;
competition for suitable development sites;
changes in governmental rules, regulations, and interpretations (including interpretations of the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act); and
general economic and business conditions.

Additionally, developed restaurants may not achieve desired revenue or cash flow levels once opened. This could result in restaurant closures, which may be significant in number, and may cause our royalty revenues and financial performance to decline. The inability to open new restaurants that achieve and sustain acceptable sales volumes and/or the closure of existing restaurants that do not achieve or sustain acceptable sales volumes, which if significant in number, may have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.


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We are significantly franchised; as a result, we are highly dependent upon our franchisees. All IHOP and almost all Applebee’s restaurants are owned and operated by our franchisees. Our dependence on our franchisees could adversely affect us, our brands, and our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our financial results are significantly contingent upon the performance of our franchised restaurants because we derive a substantial portion of our revenues from royalties that are based on a percentage of gross sales at franchised restaurants. Worsening economic conditions and declining trends in sales, traffic and/or average check could impact the performance of our franchised restaurants, resulting in lower royalty, advertising fund and other payments from franchisees. If declining conditions persist, franchisee profitability and financial health may worsen and franchisees may suffer from financial, personal or other difficulties, including insolvency. Franchisees may also experience financial risks unrelated to the operation of restaurants under our brands, such as a decline in performance of other brands or businesses held by franchisees. Additionally, lenders to our franchisees may be less likely to provide current or prospective franchisees necessary financing on favorable terms, or at all, due to market conditions and our or our franchisees’ operating results. These and other factors could impact franchisees’ ability to make royalty and other payments owed to us when due and franchisees could default on their financial obligations to us. A decrease in franchisee profitability as well as other reasons could also cause franchisees’ failure or inability to meet new restaurant development obligations and other obligations such as maintenance or remodel requirements and rent obligations for certain leases on which we retain contingent liability.

Additionally, our franchise agreements have expiration dates.  Upon expiration, franchisees are generally required to enter into new franchise agreements in order to extend the franchise relationship.  We or the franchisee may or may not elect to enter into these successor franchise agreements based on a number of factors, including a failure to meet our criteria, lack of interest by either party and/or the inability of franchisees to enter into successor franchise agreements.  It is expected that, in the ordinary course of business, some franchise agreements will expire without successor franchise agreements.  However, a substantial number of franchise agreements are set to expire in 2020 and 2021 for Applebee’s and 2024 through 2028 for IHOP, and while we have begun efforts to extend the terms of these franchise agreements, we cannot ensure that we and/or our franchisees will enter into successor franchise agreements or extensions once current terms expire.  This may result in reduced royalties and other payments due to a decrease in the number of restaurants operating under our brands.

As independent third parties, franchisees own, operate and oversee the daily operations of their restaurants and their employees are not our employees. Accordingly, we do not control their actions. While our franchise agreements are designed to maintain brand consistency, having almost all franchise operated restaurants may expose us to risks not otherwise encountered if we maintained ownership and control of all of the restaurants. Franchisees may breach the terms of their franchise agreements in a manner that adversely affects our brands, such as failing to operate restaurants in accordance with our required standards, and we may be limited in our ability to enforce franchise obligations. Franchisees are required to conform to specified product quality standards and other requirements pursuant to their franchise agreements in order to protect our brands and to optimize restaurant performance. If franchisees do not successfully operate their restaurants in a manner consistent with our standards, or customers have negative experiences due to issues with food quality or operational execution, our reputation and brands could suffer, and we could be subject to claims by guests even if we are not legally liable for the franchisee's actions or failure to act. This could result in a material adverse effect on our business. The quality of franchisees’ operations may also be diminished by factors beyond our control, including a lack of investment in enhancing or maintaining acceptable standards for restaurant operations due to financial and other constraints. Franchisees also may fail or be unable to hire or retain qualified managers and other personnel and training of managers and other personnel may be inadequate. These and other such negative factors could reduce franchisees' restaurant revenues, impact payments to us under the franchise agreements and could have a material adverse effect on us.

Various other risks associated with the operation of a franchised business model that may have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition include:

inability or unwillingness of franchisees to participate in implementing changes or to participate in business strategy changes;
inability or unwillingness of franchisees to support our marketing programs and strategic initiatives;
inability of franchisees to participate in business strategy changes due to financial constraints;
failure of franchisees to report sales information accurately;
greater proportional impact of general and administrative expenses on our business and financial condition; and
inability to retain franchisees in the future, both in terms of number and quality, and inability to attract, retain and motivate sufficient numbers of franchisees of the same caliber, including top performing franchisees.


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While we try to maintain positive working relationships with our franchisees, the nature of the franchisor-franchisee relationship inherently subjects us to potential disagreements with our franchisees on matters pertaining to the business and/or our brands.  From time to time, we have experienced, and we may continue to experience, poor franchise relations caused by the efforts of one or more of our larger franchisees or an organized franchise association.
  
Concentration of Applebee's franchised restaurants in a limited number of franchisees subjects us to greater risk.  As of December 31, 2018, Applebee's franchisees operated 1,624 Applebee's restaurants in the United States. Of those restaurants, the ten largest Applebee's franchisees owned 1,175 restaurants, representing 72% of all franchised Applebee's restaurants in the United States. The largest Applebee's franchisee owned 459 restaurants, representing 28% of all franchised Applebee's restaurants in the United States. The concentration of franchised restaurants in a limited number of franchisees subjects us to a potentially higher level of risk with respect to such franchisees because their obligations to us, including financial obligations, are greater as compared to those franchisees with fewer restaurants. The risk associated with these franchisees is also greater where franchisees are the sole or dominant franchisee for a particular region of the United States, as is the case for most domestic Applebee's franchised territories. In particular, if any of these franchisees experience financial or other difficulties, the franchisee may default on its obligations under multiple franchise agreements including payments to us and the maintenance and improvement of its restaurants. From time to time, we may work with our franchisees who are experiencing financial difficulties to assess and address their financial health and their ability to satisfy their financial obligations to us. In certain of these situations, we may agree to alternative arrangements with franchisees for the payment of amounts due to us under our franchise and other agreements. We cannot assure you that these arrangements will be successful nor can we assure you that they will result in us receiving all or any of the amounts due to us under our franchise and other agreements. Any franchisee that owns and operates a significant number of Applebee's restaurants and fails to comply with other obligations under the franchise agreement, such as those relating to the quality and preparation of food and maintenance of restaurants, could cause significant harm to the Applebee's brand and subject us to claims by consumers even if we are not legally liable for the franchisee's actions or failure to act. Development rights for Applebee's restaurants are also concentrated among a limited number of existing franchisees. If any of these existing franchisees experience financial difficulties, future development of Applebee's restaurants may be materially adversely affected.

An insolvency or bankruptcy proceeding involving a franchisee could prevent or delay the collection of payments or the exercise of rights under the related franchise agreement.  An insolvency proceeding involving a franchisee could prevent or delay us from collecting payments or exercising any of our other rights under the related franchise agreement. If a franchisee is subject to bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, a bankruptcy court may prevent the termination of the related franchise and development agreement. In particular, the protection of the statutory automatic stay that arises under Section 362 of the United States Bankruptcy Code upon the commencement of a bankruptcy proceeding by or against a franchisee may prohibit us from terminating a franchise agreement previously entered into with a franchisee. Furthermore, a franchisee that is subject to bankruptcy proceedings may reject the franchise agreement in which case we would be limited to a general unsecured claim against the franchisee's bankruptcy estate on account of breach-of-contract damages arising from the rejection. Payments previously made to us by a franchisee that is subject to a bankruptcy proceeding also may be recoverable from us on behalf of the franchisee as a preferential transfer under the United States Bankruptcy Code.

We are subject to credit risk from our IHOP franchisees operating under our Previous IHOP Business Model, and a default by these franchisees may negatively affect our cash flows. Prior to 2003, new IHOP restaurants were generally developed by us, and we were involved in all aspects of the construction and financing of the restaurants. We typically identified and leased or purchased the restaurant sites for new company-developed IHOP restaurants, built and equipped the restaurants and then franchised them to franchisees. In addition, we typically financed as much as 80% of the franchise fee for periods ranging from five to eight years and leased the restaurant and equipment to the franchisee over a 25-year period. Therefore, in addition to franchise fees and royalties, the revenues received from an IHOP franchisee operating under the Previous IHOP Business Model may include, among other things, lease or sublease rents for the restaurant property building, rent under an equipment lease and interest income from the financing arrangements for the unpaid portion of the franchise fee under the franchise notes. If any of these IHOP franchisees were to default on their payment obligations to us, we may be unable to collect the amounts owed under the building property lease/sublease agreement and our notes and equipment contract receivables, as well as outstanding franchise royalties. The additional amounts owed to us by each of these IHOP franchisees subject us to greater credit risk and defaults by IHOP franchisees operating under our Previous IHOP Business Model and may negatively affect our cash flows. Of the 1,555 IHOP domestic franchise restaurants as of December 31, 2018, approximately 680 restaurants have building property lease/sublease agreements and/or notes and equipment contract obligations outstanding.


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We and our franchisees are subject to potential losses that may not be covered by insurance. We and our franchisees may have insufficient insurance coverage to cover all of the potential risks associated with the ownership and operation of restaurants. We and our franchisees may have insufficient funds to cover future unanticipated increases in insurance premiums or losses that are not covered by insurance. Certain extraordinary hazards may not be insurable and insurance may not be available (or may be available only at prohibitively expensive rates) with respect to many other risks. Moreover, there is no assurance that any loss incurred will not exceed the limits on the policies obtained, or that claim payments on such policies will be received on a timely basis. Further, there can be no assurance that any such payments, even if obtained on a timely basis, will prevent losses to franchisees or enable timely franchise payments. Accordingly, in cases in which a franchisee experiences increased insurance premiums or must pay claims out-of-pocket, the franchisee may not have the funds necessary to make franchise and other payments to us, and franchisees may be unable to perform other obligations under their franchise agreements.

If franchisees and other licensees do not observe the required quality and trademark usage standards, our brands may suffer reputational damage, which could in turn adversely affect our business.   We license our intellectual property to our franchisees, product suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, advertisers and other third parties. The franchise agreements and other license agreements require that each franchisee or other licensee use our intellectual property in accordance with established or approved quality control guidelines. However, there can be no assurance that the franchisees or other licensees will use the intellectual property assets in accordance with such guidelines. Franchisee and licensee noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the governing franchise agreement or other license agreement may reduce the overall goodwill associated with our brands. Franchisees and other licensees may refer to our intellectual property improperly in communications, resulting in the weakening of the distinctiveness of our intellectual property. There can be no assurance that the franchisees or other licensees will not take actions that could have a material adverse effect on the Applebee's or IHOP intellectual property.

In addition, even if the licensee product suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, or advertisers observe and maintain the quality and integrity of our intellectual property assets in accordance with the relevant license agreement, any product manufactured by such suppliers may be subject to regulatory sanctions and other actions by third parties which can, in turn, negatively impact the perceived quality of our restaurants and the overall goodwill of our brands, regardless of the nature and type of product involved. Any such sanctions or actions could reduce restaurant revenues and corresponding franchise payments to us.

Our performance is subject to risks associated with the restaurant industry, including the highly competitive nature of the industry. We derive a substantial portion of our revenues in the form of (i) royalties based on the gross sales of our franchised restaurants and (ii) gross sales derived from company-operated restaurants. Sales and profitability of these restaurants may be negatively impacted by a number of factors associated with operating in the restaurant industry, some of which are outside of our control. These factors include:

changes in consumer behavior driven by macro-level shifts in retail, technology, media, e-commerce, global safety and demography which may impact where, when, whether and how often customers visit full-service restaurants;
declines in comparable restaurant sales growth rates due to: (i) failure to meet or adequately adapt to changing customer expectations for food type, quality and taste, or to innovate and develop new menu items to retain existing customers and attract new customers; (ii) competitive intrusions in our markets, including competitive pricing initiatives and daypart expansion by competitors; (iii) opening new restaurants that cannibalize the sales of existing restaurants; (iv) failure of national or local marketing to be effective; and (v) natural or man-made disasters or adverse weather conditions;
negative trends in operating expenses such as: (i) increases in food and other commodity costs; (ii) increases in labor costs due to minimum wage and other employment laws or regulations, immigration reform, the potential impact of union organizing efforts and tight labor market conditions; and (iii) increases in other operating costs including advertising, utilities, lease-related expenses and credit card processing fees;
the highly competitive nature of the restaurant and related industries with respect to, among other things: (i) price, service, location, personnel and the type and quality of food; (ii) the trend toward convergence in grocery, deli, retail and restaurant services, as well as the continued expansion of restaurants into the breakfast daypart; (iii) the entry of major market players in non-competing industries into the food services market; (iv) the decline in the price of groceries which may increase the attractiveness of dining at home versus dining out; and (v) the emergence of new or improved technologies and changes in consumer behavior facilitated by such technology;
the inability to increase menu pricing to offset increased operating expenses; and
failure to effectively manage further penetration into mature markets.


18


Factors outside our control may harm our brands' reputations.  The success of our business is largely dependent upon brand recognition and the strength of our franchise systems. Our and our franchisees’ continued success is directly dependent upon maintaining a favorable public view of the Applebee's and IHOP brands. Negative publicity (e.g., crime, scandal, litigation, on-site accidents and injuries or other harm to customers, social issues, and food-borne illness) at a single Applebee's or IHOP location can have a substantial negative impact on all restaurants within the Applebee's or IHOP system. Multi-unit food service businesses such as ours can be materially and adversely affected by widespread negative publicity of any type, including through social media, but particularly regarding food quality, food-borne illness, food tampering or preparation, obesity, discrimination or bias, injury or other health concerns with respect to certain foods and actions of our or our franchisees’ managers or employees, regardless of whether such claims are accurate or valid.

The risk of food-borne illness or food tampering cannot be completely eliminated. Any outbreak of food-borne illness or other food-related incidents attributed to Applebee's or IHOP restaurants or within the food service industry or any widespread negative publicity regarding the Applebee's or IHOP brands or the restaurant industry in general could harm our reputation. Even where such food-related incidents occur solely at restaurants of our competitors or within the industry, our business could be adversely affected by negative publicity about the restaurant industry generally. Our company-owned restaurants and our franchisees may produce or receive through the supply chain sub-standard or non-compliant food or beverage products. In addition, our franchisees’ failure to comply with food quality and preparation requirements may subject us to potential losses, even when we are not legally liable for a franchisee's actions or failure to act. Although the Company maintains liability insurance, and each franchisee is required to maintain liability insurance pursuant to its franchise agreements, a liability claim could injure the reputation of all Applebee's or IHOP restaurants, whether or not it is ultimately successful

Declines in our financial performance have resulted in and could result in future impairment charges.   United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) require annual (or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances warrant) impairment tests of goodwill, intangible assets and other long-lived assets. Generally speaking, if the carrying value of the asset is in excess of the estimated fair value of the asset, the carrying value will be adjusted to fair value through an impairment charge. Fair values of goodwill and intangible assets are primarily estimated using discounted cash flows based on five-year forecasts of financial results that incorporate assumptions including, among other things, same-restaurant sales trends, future development plans, brand-enhancing initiatives, restaurant closures and an appropriate discount rate. Fair values of long-lived tangible assets are primarily estimated using discounted cash flows over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Significant underachievement of forecasted results or changes in the discount rate assumption could reduce the estimated fair value of these assets below the carrying value, requiring non-cash impairment charges to reduce the carrying value of the asset. As of December 31, 2018, our total stockholders' deficit was $202.3 million. Any significant impairment write-down of goodwill, intangible assets or long-lived assets in the future could increase the stockholders' deficit. Repurchases of our common stock will also increase the stockholders' deficit. While such a deficit balance does not create an event of default in any of our contractual agreements, the negative perception of such a deficit could have an adverse effect on our stock price and could impair our ability to obtain new financing, or refinance existing indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Many factors, including those over which we have no control, affect the trading volatility and price of our stock. Many factors, in addition to our operating results, may have an impact on the trading volatility and price of our common stock. These factors include general economic and market conditions, publicity regarding us, our competitors, or the restaurant industry generally, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, changes in financial or tax reporting and accounting principles or practices, trading activity in our common stock, overall liquidity and the impact of our capital allocation initiatives, including any future stock repurchase programs or dividend declarations. A number of these factors are outside of our control, and any failure to meet market expectations whether for sales growth, earnings per share or other metrics could cause our share price to decline.

Our actual operating and financial results in any given period may differ from guidance we provide to the public, including our most recent public guidance.   From time to time, in press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls and other contexts, we have provided guidance to the public regarding current business conditions and our expectations for our future financial results. We expect that we will provide guidance periodically in the future. Our guidance is based upon a number of assumptions, expectations and estimates that are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. In providing our guidance, we also make various assumptions with respect to our future business decisions, some of which will change. Our actual financial results, therefore, may vary from our guidance due to our inability to meet the assumptions upon which our guidance is based and the impact on our business of the various risks and uncertainties described in these risk factors and in our public filings with the SEC. Variances between our actual results and our guidance may be material. To the extent that our actual financial results do not meet or exceed our guidance, the trading prices of our securities may be materially adversely affected.

19


Our business strategy may not achieve anticipated results. We expect to continue to apply a business strategy that includes operation of a significantly franchised restaurant system across multiple brands and brand-specific business strategies suited to each brand. There can be no assurance that the business strategy we apply to one franchise system will be suitable or will achieve results similar to the application of such business strategy to another franchise system. In addition, operational improvement, purchasing and other strategic initiatives for any of our brands may not be successful or achieve the desired results, and there can be no assurance that franchisees will respond favorably to such initiatives. Additionally, our strategic initiatives may subject us and our franchisees to new and additional risks.

Our business strategy includes the addition of new brands to our restaurant portfolio through mergers and acquisitions. There can be no assurance that any such transaction will be successful or produce favorable financial or other results.

A lack of availability of suitable locations for new restaurants or a decline in the quality of the locations of our current restaurants may adversely affect our sales and results of operations. The success of our brands depends in large part on restaurant locations. As demographic and economic patterns change, current locations may not continue to be attractive or profitable. Potential declines in neighborhoods where restaurants are located or adverse economic conditions in areas surrounding those neighborhoods could result in reduced sales in those locations. In addition, desirable locations for new restaurant openings or for the relocation of existing restaurants may not be available at an acceptable cost when we identify a particular opportunity for a new restaurant or relocation. Additionally, restaurant revitalization initiatives may not be completed as and when projected and may not produce the results we expect. We also may be unable to operate effectively in new and/or highly competitive geographic regions or local markets in which our franchisees have limited operating experience.

We may experience shortages or interruptions in the supply or delivery of food and other products from third parties or in the availability of utilities. Our and our franchised restaurants are dependent on frequent deliveries of fresh produce, food, beverages and other products. Shortages or interruptions in food and beverage supplies may result from a variety of causes, including shortages due to adverse weather, labor unrest, political unrest, terrorism, outbreaks of food-borne illness, disruption of operation of production facilities, financial difficulties (including bankruptcy) of our suppliers or other unforeseen circumstances. Such shortages could adversely affect our and our franchisees’ ability to operate our restaurants and, in turn, affect our and our franchisees’ revenue and profits. Additionally, the inability to secure adequate and reliable supplies or distribution of food and beverage products could limit our ability to make changes to our core menus or offer promotional "limited time only" menu items, which may limit our ability to implement our business strategies. Our and our franchisees’ restaurants bear risks associated with the timeliness of deliveries by suppliers and distributors as well as the solvency, reputation, labor relationships, freight rates, prices of raw materials and health and safety standards of each supplier and distributor. Other significant risks associated with our suppliers and distributors include improper handling of food and beverage products and/or the adulteration or contamination of such food and beverage products. Disruptions in our relationships with suppliers and distributors may reduce the payments we receive from our franchisees or our pancake and waffle dry mix distributors or the profits generated by our company-operated restaurants. In addition, interruptions to the availability of gas, electric, water or other utilities may adversely affect the operations of our and our franchised restaurants.

Any inability to effectively manage or forecast appropriate inventory levels may adversely affect our business. Effective management of inventory levels depends, in part, on our ability to anticipate and respond in a timely manner to changing consumer demand and preferences. From time to time, we may carry excessive inventory resulting from menu events that vary from forecasted demand which may result in financial loss to us and/or to our franchisees. Conversely, if we underestimate demand, we may experience inventory shortages which may result in lost revenues.

A failure to develop and implement innovative marketing and guest relationship initiatives, ineffective or improper use of social media or other marketing initiatives and increased advertising and marketing costs could adversely affect our business results. If our competitors increase their spending on advertising and promotions, if our advertising, media or marketing expenses increase, or if our advertising and promotions become less effective than those of our competitors, we could experience a material adverse effect on our business results. A failure to sufficiently innovate, develop guest relationship initiatives, or maintain adequate and effective advertising could inhibit our ability to maintain brand relevance and drive increased sales.


20


As part of our marketing efforts, we rely on search engine marketing and social media platforms to attract and retain guests. These efforts may not be successful, resulting in expenses incurred without the benefit of higher revenues or increased employee engagement. In addition, a variety of risks are associated with the use of social media, including the improper disclosure of proprietary information, posting of negative comments about our brands or experiences in our or our franchisees’ restaurants, exposure of personally identifiable information, fraud, and use of outdated information. The use, including any inappropriate or otherwise harmful use, of social media vehicles by our franchisees and their employees, guests, our employees or others in the general public could increase our costs, lead to litigation or result in negative publicity that could damage our reputation.

Changing health or dietary preferences may cause consumers to avoid Applebee's and IHOP restaurants in favor of alternative options.  The food service industry as a whole rests on consumer preferences and demographic trends at the local, regional, national and international levels. Franchise development and system-wide sales depend on the sustained demand for our products, which may be affected by factors we do not control. New information regarding diet, nutrition and health and efforts by advocacy groups to influence consumer eating habits may negatively affect the demand for our food. Various additional factors such as: (i) the Food and Drug Administration’s menu labeling rules, (ii) nutritional guidelines issued by the United States Department of Agriculture and issuance of similar guidelines or statistical information by state or local municipalities, (iii) academic studies; or (iv) efforts by environmental, animal welfare and sustainability advocacy groups, may impact consumer choice and cause consumers to select foods other than those that are offered by Applebee's or IHOP restaurants. We may not be able to adequately adapt Applebee's or IHOP restaurants' menu offerings to keep pace with developments in consumer preferences, which may result in reduced royalty revenues from a decline in demand for our food and fewer guests visiting Applebee’s and IHOP restaurants.

We face a variety of risks associated with doing business in international markets. Our expansion into and continued operations in international markets could create risks to our brands and reputation. There is no assurance that our international operations will be profitable or that international growth will continue. Our international operations are subject to the same risks associated with our domestic operations, as well as a number of additional risks. These include, among other things, international economic and political conditions, issues with collections, international currency fluctuations, terrorism, global travel risks and differing cultures and consumer preferences.

We also are subject to governmental regulations throughout the world that impact the way we do business with our international franchisees and vendors. These include antitrust and tax requirements, import/export/customs regulations, anti-boycott regulations, other international trade regulations, the USA Patriot Act and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Failure to comply with any such legal requirements could subject us to monetary liabilities and other sanctions, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may be subject to litigation and other legal proceedings that could be time consuming, require significant amounts of management time and result in the diversion of significant operational resources. We are involved in lawsuits, claims and proceedings incident to the ordinary course of our business. Litigation is inherently unpredictable. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, require significant amounts of management time and result in the diversion of significant operational resources. There have been a growing number of lawsuits in recent years. There also has been a rise in employment-related lawsuits. From time to time, we have been subject to these types of lawsuits. The cost of defending claims against us or the ultimate resolution of such claims may harm our business and operating results. In addition, the increasingly regulated business environment may result in a greater number of enforcement actions and private litigation. This could subject us to increased exposure to stockholder lawsuits.

       We and our franchisees are subject to complaints or litigation from guests alleging illness, injury or other food quality, food safety, health or operational concerns as well as claims related to social issues (.e.g., allegations of discrimination), the Americans with Disabilities Act and other premises liability. We and our franchisees are also subject to "dram shop" laws in some states pursuant to which we and our franchisees may be subject to liability in connection with personal injuries or property damages incurred in connection with wrongfully serving alcoholic beverages to an intoxicated person.

Although our franchise agreements require our franchisees to defend and indemnify us, we may be named as a defendant and sustain liability in legal proceedings against franchisees under the doctrines of vicarious liability, agency, negligence or otherwise. Claims against our franchisees may reduce the ability of our franchisees to make payments to us. We may also initiate legal proceedings against franchisees for breach of the terms of their franchise agreements, including underreporting of sales, failure to operate restaurants according to standard operating procedures and payment defaults. These claims also may reduce the ability of franchisees to enter into new franchise agreements with us.


21


Third-party claims with respect to intellectual property assets, if decided against us, may result in competing uses or require adoption of new, non-infringing intellectual property, which may in turn adversely affect sales and revenues. We regard our service marks and trademarks related to our restaurant businesses as having significant value and being important to our marketing efforts. To protect our brands from infringement, we rely on contracts, copyrights, patents, trademarks, service marks and other common law rights, such as trade secret and unfair competition laws. We have registered certain trademarks and service marks in the United States and international jurisdictions; however, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we have or intend to open or franchise a restaurant. Although we believe we have taken appropriate measures to protect our intellectual property, there can be no assurance that these protections will be adequate.

In addition, there can be no assurance that third parties will not assert infringement or misappropriation claims against us, or assert claims that our rights in our trademarks, service marks and other intellectual property assets are invalid or unenforceable. Any such claims could have a material adverse effect on us or our franchisees if such claims were to be decided against us. If our rights in any intellectual property were invalidated or deemed unenforceable, it could permit competing uses of intellectual property which, in turn, could lead to a decline in restaurant revenues and sales of other branded products and services (if any). If the intellectual property became subject to third-party infringement, misappropriation or other claims, and such claims were decided against us, we may be forced to pay damages, be required to develop or adopt non-infringing intellectual property or be obligated to acquire a license to the intellectual property that is the subject of the asserted claim. There could be significant expenses associated with the defense of any infringement, misappropriation, or other third-party claims.

Our delivery initiatives and use of third-party delivery vendors subjects us and our franchisees to a variety of risks related to the delivery of our products by third parties and may not generate expected returns. There can be no assurance that these vendors will not take actions that could have a material adverse effect on our brands and or subject us to increased litigation and costs. Our delivery initiatives also introduce new operating procedures to our and our franchisees’ restaurants, which could adversely affect the business, brands, and the experience of our guests.

Our business depends on the proper allocation of our human capital and our ability to attract and retain talented management and other key employees. We have dedicated brand resources for key functions such as marketing, consumer insights and operations and a shared service model for certain other functions such as legal, technology and human resources. There can be no assurance that our allocation of our human capital will effectively meet the needs of our business and brands. Further, our business is based on successfully attracting and retaining talented employees. The market for highly skilled employees and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. If we are less successful in our recruiting efforts, or if we are unable to retain management and other key employees, our ability to develop and deliver successful products and services may be adversely affected. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. The departure of a key executive or employee and/or the failure to ensure an effective transfer of knowledge and a smooth transition upon such departure may be disruptive to the business and could hinder our strategic planning and execution.


Our failure or the failure of our franchisees to comply with federal, state and local governmental regulations may subject us to losses and harm our brands.  We are subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act (which governs such matters as minimum wage, overtime and other working conditions), along with the Americans with Disabilities Act (which provides civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities in the context of employment, public accommodations, and other areas), the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, various family leave mandates and a variety of other laws enacted, or rules and regulations promulgated by federal, state and local governmental authorities that govern these and other employment matters, including tip credits, working conditions, safety standards and immigration status. There have been several complaints alleging franchisors to be joint employers with franchisees. Although we do not consider ourselves to be joint employers with our franchisees, there can be no assurance that other franchisors will not receive similar complaints in the future which may result in legal proceedings based on the actions of its franchisees. Increases in payroll expenses as a result of any federal and state mandated increases in the minimum wage may negatively impact our and our franchisees’ profitability. Enactment and enforcement of various federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations on immigration and labor organizations may adversely impact the availability and costs of labor in a particular area or across the United States. Other labor shortages or increased team member turnover could also increase labor costs. In addition, our vendors may be affected by higher minimum wage standards or availability of labor, which may increase the price of goods and services they supply to us. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has impacted our franchisees’ employee costs in some respects. There are no assurances that a combination of cost management and price increases can accommodate all of the costs associated with compliance.


22


We are subject to extensive federal, state and local governmental regulations, including those relating to food safety and inspection and the preparation and sale of food and alcoholic beverages. Disruptions within any government agencies could impact the U.S. food industry, which may have an adverse effect on our business. We are also subject to laws and regulations relating to building and zoning requirements. Our and our franchisees' restaurants are also subject to licensing and regulation by alcoholic beverage control, health, sanitation, safety and fire agencies in the state, county and/or municipality where the restaurant is located. We cannot assure you that we or our franchisees will not encounter material difficulties or failures, including with respect to obtaining and maintaining required licenses and approvals, which could impact the continuing operations of an existing restaurant, or delay or prevent the opening of a new restaurant.

In addition, we are subject to laws and regulations, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, relating to nutritional content and menu labeling. Compliance with these laws and regulations may lead to increased costs and operational complexity and may increase our exposure to governmental investigations or litigation. In connection with the continued operation or remodeling of certain restaurants, we and our franchisees may be required to expend funds to meet federal, state, local and international regulations. The inability to obtain or maintain such licenses or publicity resulting from actual or alleged violations of such laws could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We are subject to federal regulation and certain foreign and state laws, including state laws that govern the offer and sale of franchises. Many state franchise laws contain provisions that supersede the terms of franchise agreements, including provisions concerning the termination or non-renewal of a franchise. Some state franchise laws require that certain materials be registered before franchises can be offered or sold in that state. The failure to obtain or retain licenses or approvals to sell franchises could adversely affect us and the franchisees. Changes in, and the cost of compliance with, government regulations could have a material effect on operations.

Finally, regulatory changes or actions under the current U.S. political administration may impact the laws or regulations described above. We cannot predict whether or when any of these potential changes in law might become effective in any jurisdiction nor the impact, if any, of these changes to our business.

We are subject to risks associated with self-insurance for medical, dental and vision benefits. We self-insure all of our employee medical, dental and vision benefits. We maintain a per claim stop loss coverage but do not maintain coverage at an aggregate level. Our reserves are based on historical loss trends that may not correlate to actual loss experience in the future. If we experience an unexpectedly large number of claims that result in costs or liabilities in excess of our projections, our reserves may prove to be insufficient and we may be exposed to significant and unexpected losses. For these and other reasons, including our inability to renew stop loss coverage at competitive rates, we are subject to risks associated with self-insurance that may have an adverse effect on the Corporation’s financial condition and operating results.

In addition, access to personal medical information is regulated by federal, state and/or local laws as well as by certain third-party agreements. If our security and information systems or the systems of our third-party vendors are compromised, we could be subject to costly litigation or penalties and our reputation and operations could be adversely affected.

Any inability or failure to execute on a comprehensive business continuity plan following a major natural disaster such as an earthquake, tornado, flood or a man-made disaster, including terrorism or a cyber incident, at or affecting our corporate facilities could materially adversely impact our business. Our corporate systems and processes and corporate support for our restaurant operations are handled primarily at our restaurant support center. We have disaster recovery procedures and business continuity plans in place to address most events of a crisis nature, including earthquakes, tornadoes, floods and other natural or man-made disasters, and back up and off-site locations for recovery of electronic and other forms of data and information. However, if we are unable to fully implement our disaster recovery plans, we may experience delays in recovery of data, inability to perform vital corporate functions, tardiness in required reporting and compliance, failures to adequately support field operations and other breakdowns in normal communication and operating procedures that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operation and exposure to administrative and other legal claims.

Development initiatives outside our core business could negatively impact our brands. Our business expansion into non-traditional restaurant formats, including restaurants with a smaller footprint and restaurants located in non-traditional locations could create new risks to our brand and reputation.


23


Failure of our internal controls over financial reporting and future changes in accounting standards may cause adverse unexpected operating results, affect our reported results of operations or otherwise harm our business and financial results. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining effective internal controls over financial reporting. Internal controls over financial reporting is a process to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting is not intended to provide absolute assurance that we would prevent or detect a misstatement of our financial statements or fraud. Any failure to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting could limit our ability to report our financial results accurately and timely or to detect and prevent fraud. A significant financial reporting failure or material weakness in internal control over financial reporting could cause a loss of investor confidence and decline in the market price of our common stock.

A change in accounting standards can have a significant effect on our reported results and may affect our reporting of transactions before the change is effective. New pronouncements and varying interpretations of pronouncements have occurred and may occur in the future. Changes to existing accounting rules or the questioning of current accounting practices may adversely affect our reported financial results. Additionally, our assumptions, estimates and judgments related to complex accounting matters could significantly affect our financial results. Generally accepted accounting principles and related accounting pronouncements, implementation guidelines and interpretations are highly complex and involve many subjective assumptions, estimates and judgments by us. Changes in these rules or their interpretation or changes in underlying assumptions, estimates or judgments by us could significantly change our reported or expected financial performance.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.


24


Item 2.    Properties.
The table below shows the location and ownership type of Applebee's and IHOP restaurants as of December 31, 2018:
 
Applebee's (a)
 
IHOP (a)
 
Franchise
 
Company
 
Total Applebee's
 
Franchise
 
Area License
 
Total IHOP
United States
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alabama
29

 

 
29

 
19

 

 
19

Alaska
1

 

 
1

 
4

 

 
4

Arizona
22

 

 
22

 
45

 

 
45

Arkansas
8

 

 
8

 
17

 

 
17

California
114

 

 
114

 
233

 

 
233

Colorado
24

 

 
24

 
37

 

 
37

Connecticut
6

 

 
6

 
9

 

 
9

Delaware
12

 

 
12

 
7

 

 
7

District of Columbia

 

 

 
2

 

 
2

Florida
105

 

 
105

 

 
146

(b)
146

Georgia
63

 

 
63

 
77

 
4

(b)
81

Hawaii
2

 

 
2

 
8

 

 
8

Idaho
12

 

 
12

 
8

 

 
8

Illinois
39

 

 
39

 
52

 

 
52

Indiana
58

 

 
58

 
24

 

 
24

Iowa
26

 

 
26

 
11

 

 
11

Kansas
32

 

 
32

 
28

 

 
28

Kentucky
27

 

 
27

 
10

 

 
10

Louisiana
15

 

 
15

 
31

 

 
31

Maine
12

 

 
12

 
4

 

 
4

Maryland
22

 

 
22

 
52

 

 
52

Massachusetts
28

 

 
28

 
21

 

 
21

Michigan
86

 

 
86

 
27

 

 
27

Minnesota
50

 

 
50

 
9

 

 
9

Mississippi
21

 

 
21

 
15

 

 
15

Missouri
49

 

 
49

 
33

 

 
33

Montana
8

 

 
8

 
5

 

 
5

Nebraska
18

 

 
18

 
8

 

 
8

Nevada
13

 

 
13

 
24

 

 
24

New Hampshire
14

 

 
14

 
6

 

 
6

New Jersey
60

 

 
60

 
46

 

 
46

New Mexico
20

 

 
20

 
22

 

 
22

New York
109

 

 
109

 
57

 

 
57

North Carolina
1

 
42

 
43

 
54

 

 
54

North Dakota
11

 

 
11

 
2

 

 
2

Ohio
77

 

 
77

 
41

 

 
41

Oklahoma
13

 

 
13

 
34

 

 
34

Oregon
19

 

 
19

 
9

 

 
9

Pennsylvania
80

 

 
80

 
27

 

 
27

Rhode Island
8

 

 
8

 
5

 

 
5

South Carolina

 
27

 
27

 
33

 

 
33

South Dakota
6

 

 
6

 
2

 

 
2

Tennessee
30

 

 
30

 
41

 

 
41

Texas
97

 

 
97

 
209

 

 
209

Utah
10

 

 
10

 
21

 

 
21

Vermont
3

 

 
3

 
1

 

 
1

Virginia
63

 

 
63

 
67

 

 
67

Washington
41

 

 
41

 
32

 

 
32

West Virginia
16

 

 
16

 
8

 

 
8

Wisconsin
40

 

 
40

 
15

 

 
15

Wyoming
4

 

 
4

 
3

 

 
3

Total Domestic
1,624

 
69

 
1,693

 
1,555

 
150

 
1,705


25


 
Applebee's (a)
 
IHOP (a)
 
Franchise
 
Company
 
Total Applebee's
 
Franchise
 
Area License
 
Total IHOP
International
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bahrain

 

 

 
3

 

 
3

Brazil
2

 

 
2

 

 

 

Canada
16

 

 
16

 
16

 
12

(b)
28

Costa Rica
3

 

 
3

 

 

 

Dominican Republic
3

 

 
3

 

 

 

Egypt
1

 

 
1

 

 

 

Guam
1

 

 
1

 
2

 

 
2

Guatemala
5

 

 
5

 
2

 

 
2

India

 

 

 
2

 

 
2

Indonesia
1

 

 
1

 

 

 

Kuwait
8

 

 
8

 
6

 

 
6

Lebanon

 

 

 
1

 

 
1

Mexico
56

 

 
56

 
45

 

 
45

Northern Mariana Islands

 

 

 
1

 

 
1

Panama
2

 

 
2

 
4

 

 
4

Puerto Rico
6

 

 
6

 
5

 

 
5

Qatar
8

 

 
8

 
1

 

 
1

Saudi Arabia
22

 

 
22

 
17

 

 
17

Thailand

 

 

 
3

 

 
3

United Arab Emirates
10

 

 
10

 
6

 

 
6

Total International
144

 

 
144

 
114

 
12

 
126

Totals
1,768

 
69

 
1,837

 
1,669

 
162

 
1,831


(a) The properties identified in this table generate revenue in our franchise, rental, financing and company restaurant operating segments.
(b) Of these restaurants, 35 in Florida, one in Georgia and nine in Canada have been sub-licensed by the area licensee.
Of the 1,669 IHOP restaurants operated by franchisees, 58 were located on sites owned by us, 618 were located on sites leased by us from third parties and 993 were located on sites owned or leased by franchisees. All of the IHOP restaurants operated by area licensees and 1,766 of the franchisee-operated Applebee's restaurants were located on sites owned or leased by the area licensees or the franchisees. We owned one site on which a franchisee-operated Applebee's restaurant was located. The 69 Applebee's restaurants we operated as of December 31, 2018 were located on sites leased by us from third parties.
Leases of IHOP restaurants generally provide for an initial term of 20 to 25 years, with most having one or more five-year renewal options. Leases of Applebee's restaurants generally have an initial term of 10 to 20 years, with renewal terms of five to 20 years. In addition, a substantial number of the leases for both IHOP and Applebee's restaurants include provisions calling for the periodic escalation of rents during the initial term and/or during renewal terms. The leases typically provide for payment of rents in an amount equal to the greater of a fixed amount or a specified percentage of gross sales and for payment of taxes, insurance premiums, maintenance expenses and certain other costs. Historically, it has been our practice to seek to extend, through negotiation, those leases that expire without renewal options. However, from time to time, we choose not to renew a lease or are unsuccessful in negotiating satisfactory renewal terms. When this occurs, the restaurant is closed and possession of the premises is returned to the landlord.
Under our Applebee's franchise agreements, we have certain rights to gain control of a restaurant site in the event of default under the franchise agreement. Because substantially all IHOP franchised restaurants developed by us under our Previous IHOP Business Model are subleased to the franchisees, IHOP has the ability to regain possession of the subleased restaurant if the franchisee defaults in the payment of rent or other terms of the sublease.
We currently occupy our principal corporate offices and restaurant support center in Glendale, California, under a lease expiring in April 2023. We lease approximately 50,000 square feet of office space in Kansas City, Missouri, under a lease expiring in October 2021.


26


Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.
We are subject to various lawsuits, administrative proceedings, audits, and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. Some of these lawsuits purport to be class actions and/or seek substantial damages. We are required to record an accrual for litigation loss contingencies that are both probable and reasonably estimable. Legal fees and expenses associated with the defense of all of our litigation are expensed as such fees and expenses are incurred. Management regularly assesses our insurance deductibles, analyzes litigation information with our attorneys and evaluates our loss experience in connection with pending legal proceedings. While we do not presently believe that any of the legal proceedings to which we are currently a party will ultimately have a material adverse impact on us, there can be no assurance that we will prevail in all the proceedings we are party to, or that we will not incur material losses from them.


Item 4.   Mine Safety Disclosure.

Not Applicable.


PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “DIN”.

Holders

The number of stockholders of record and beneficial owners of our common stock as of February 1, 2019 was estimated to be 19,100.

Dividends on Common Stock

Please refer to Note 12 - Stockholders' Deficit, of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information on dividends declared and paid in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

On February 20, 2019, our Board of Directors approved payment of a cash dividend of $0.69 per share of common stock, payable at the close of business on April 5, 2019 to the stockholders of record as of the close of business on March 20, 2019.

We evaluate dividend payments on common stock within the context of our overall capital allocation strategy with our Board of Directors on an ongoing basis, giving consideration to our current and forecast earnings, financial condition, cash requirements and other factors. There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay such dividends or the amount of such dividends.

27


Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2018, regarding shares outstanding and available for issuance under the Dine Brands Global, Inc. 2016 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”):
Plan Category
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights
 
Weighted average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights
 
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))
(a)
 
(b)
 
(c)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
1,439,708

 
$
63.21

 
567,829

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

 

 

Total
1,439,708

 
$
63.21

 
567,829

The number of securities remaining available for future issuance represents shares under the 2016 Plan. Please refer to Note 14 - Stock-Based Incentive Plans, of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of the 2016 Plan.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Company
Period
 
Total number of
shares
purchased
 
Average price
paid per
share
 
Total number of
shares purchased as
part of publicly
announced plans or
programs (c)
 
Approximate dollar value of
shares that may yet be
purchased under the
plans or programs (c)
October 1, 2018 – October 28, 2018(a)
 
29,253

 
$76.80
 
27,730

 
$
37,100,000

October 29, 2018 – November 25, 2018(b)
 
788

 
$88.73
 

 
$
37,100,000

November 26, 2018 – December 30, 2018(a)
 
68,057

 
$73.07
 
67,494

 
$
32,200,000

Total
 
98,098

 
$74.31
 
95,224

 
$
32,200,000


(a)  Include 1,523 shares owned and tendered by employees at an average price of $81.24 per share during the fiscal month ended October 28, 2018 and 563 shares owned and tendered by employees at an average price of $82.59 per share during the fiscal month ended December 30, 2018 to satisfy tax withholding obligations arising upon the vesting of restricted stock awards. Shares so surrendered by the participants are repurchased by us pursuant to the terms of the plan under which the shares were issued and the applicable individual award agreements and not pursuant to publicly announced repurchase authorizations.
(b)  These amounts represent shares owned and tendered by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations arising upon the vesting of restricted stock awards. Shares so surrendered by the participants are repurchased by us pursuant to the terms of the plan under which the shares were issued and the applicable individual award agreements and not pursuant to publicly announced repurchase authorizations.
(c)  In October 2015, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $150 million of the Company's common stock on an opportunistic basis from time to time in open market transactions and in privately negotiated transactions, including Rule 10b-5 stock repurchase plans, based on business, market, applicable legal requirements and other considerations. The program does not require the repurchase of a specific number of shares and can be terminated at any time.


28


Stock Performance Graph
The graph below shows a comparison of the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return on the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Index and the Value-Line Restaurants Index (“Restaurant Index”) over the five-year period ended December 31, 2018. The graph and table assume $100 was invested at the close of trading on the last day of trading in 2013 in our common stock and in each of the market indices, with reinvestment of all dividends. Stockholder returns over the indicated periods should not be considered indicative of future stock prices or stockholder returns.
Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Stockholder Return
Dine Brands Global, Inc., Standard & Poor's 500 and Value Line Restaurant Index
(Performance Results through December 31, 2018)

http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12724948&doc=24

 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
Dine Brands Global, Inc. 
$
100.00

 
$
128.63

 
$
109.08

 
$
103.70

 
$
74.25

 
$
101.97

Standard & Poor's 500
100.00

 
113.69

 
115.27

 
129.06

 
157.23

 
150.34

Restaurant Index
100.00

 
112.21

 
135.82

 
145.60

 
180.63

 
200.74


The foregoing performance graph is being furnished as part of this report solely in accordance with the requirement under Rule 14a-3(b)(9) to furnish our stockholders with such information, and therefore, shall not be deemed to be filed or incorporated by reference into any filings by the Company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) or the Exchange Act.


29


Item 6.    Selected Financial Data.
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations information and the consolidated balance sheet data for the years ended and as of December 31, 2018, December 31, 2017, December 31, 2016, December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements.
 
Fiscal Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
 
(as adjusted) (a)
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
(In millions, except per share amounts and restaurant data)
Royalties, franchise fees and other franchise revenues
$
375.6

 
$
360.2

 
$
377.9

 
$
386.6

 
$
365.8

Advertising revenue
268.3

 
234.2

 
260.1

 
108.1

 
90.3

Total franchise revenues
643.9

 
594.4

 
638.0

 
494.7

 
456.1

Rental revenues
121.9

 
121.4

 
123.0

 
127.7

 
122.9

Financing revenues
8.0

 
8.4

 
9.2

 
10.8

 
13.5

Company restaurant sales (c)
7.1

 
7.5

 
17.4

 
47.9

 
62.5

Total revenues
780.9

 
731.7

 
787.6

 
681.1

 
655.0

Cost of revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Advertising expenses
269.6

 
243.1

 
260.1

 
108.1

 
90.3

Other franchise expenses
61.0

 
50.9

 
33.4

 
30.9

 
31.5

Total franchise expenses
330.6

 
294.0

 
293.5

 
139.0

 
121.8

Rental revenues
90.7

 
90.6

 
91.5

 
94.6

 
94.7

Financing revenues
0.6

 
0.6

 
0.2

 
0.5

 
0.8

Company restaurant expenses (c)
5.9

 
7.8

 
18.2

 
48.0

 
62.6

Total cost of revenues
427.8

 
393.0

 
403.4

 
282.1

 
279.9

Gross profit
353.1

 
338.7

 
384.1

 
399.0

 
375.1

General and administrative expenses
166.7

 
165.7

 
148.9

 
155.4

 
145.9

Interest expense
61.7

 
62.0

 
61.5

 
63.3

 
96.6

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

 
531.6

 

 

 

Other expense, net (b)
14.1

 
7.7

 
15.9

 
11.7

 
81.0

Income before income taxes
110.6

 
(428.3
)
 
157.8

 
168.6

 
51.6

Income tax (provision) benefit
(30.3
)
 
85.6

 
(56.8
)
 
(63.7
)
 
(15.1
)
Net income (loss)
80.4

 
(342.8
)
 
101.0

 
104.9

 
36.5

Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
77.6

 
$
(336.0
)
 
$
99.6

 
$
103.5

 
$
35.9

Net income (loss) available to common stockholders per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
4.43

 
$
(18.96
)
 
$
5.52

 
$
5.55

 
$
1.92

Diluted
$
4.37

 
$
(18.96
)
 
$
5.49

 
$
5.52

 
$
1.90

Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
17.5

 
17.7

 
18.0

 
18.6

 
18.8

Diluted
17.8

 
17.7

 
18.1

 
18.8

 
19.0

Dividends declared per common share
$
2.52

 
$
3.88

 
$
3.73

 
$
3.545

 
$
3.125

Dividends paid per common share
$
2.86

 
$
3.88

 
$
3.68

 
$
3.50

 
$
2.25

Balance Sheet Data (end of year):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
137.2

 
$
117.0

 
$
140.5

 
$
144.8

 
$
104.0

Property and equipment, net
240.3

 
199.6

 
219.6

 
219.6

 
241.2

Total assets
1,774.7

 
1,735.6

 
2,331.9

 
2,331.9

 
2,393.7

Long-term debt, less current maturities
1,274.1

 
1,269.8

 
1,282.7

 
1,279.5

 
1,276.5

Capital lease and financing obligations, less current maturities
126.2

 
101.1

 
114.2

 
127.2

 
140.6

Stockholders' (deficit) equity
(202.3
)
 
(215.5
)
 
252.8

 
267.2

 
279.1

Other Financial Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows provided by operating activities
$
140.3

 
$
65.7

 
$
118.1

 
$
135.5

 
$
118.5

Capital expenditures
14.3

 
13.4

 
5.6

 
6.6

 
5.9

Domestic system-wide same-restaurant sales percentage change:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Applebee's
5.0
%
 
(5.3
)%
 
(5.0
)%
 
0.2
%
 
1.1
%
IHOP
1.5
%
 
(1.9
)%
 
(0.1
)%
 
4.5
%
 
3.9
%
Total restaurants (end of year):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Applebee's
1,837

 
1,936

 
2,016

 
2,033

 
2,017

IHOP
1,831

 
1,786

 
1,733

 
1,683

 
1,650

Total restaurants
3,668

 
3,722

 
3,749

 
3,716

 
3,667


(a)
We adopted a new revenue recognition standard on January 1, 2018 that was applied retrospectively to 2017 and 2016 (See Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements); financial information for years 2015 and 2014 has not been adjusted to reflect the new standard.
(b)
Includes amortization of intangible assets, closure and other impairment charges and gain/loss on disposition of assets in each year as well as $2.5 million of debt refinancing costs in 2018 and a $64.9 million loss on extinguishment of debt in 2014.
(c)
We acquired 69 Applebee's franchise restaurants in December 2018. We refranchised nine IHOP company-operated restaurants in June 2017 and 23 Applebee's company-operated restaurants in July 2015.

30


Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Statements contained in this report may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause actual results to be materially different from those expressed or implied in such statements. You can identify these forward-looking statements by words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “goal” and other similar expressions. You should consider our forward-looking statements in light of the risks discussed under the heading “Risk Factors,” as well as our consolidated financial statements, related notes, and the other financial information appearing elsewhere in this report and our other filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. The forward-looking statements contained in this report are made as of the date hereof and the Company assumes no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements.
You should read the following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this report.
General
The first International House of Pancakes restaurant opened in 1958 in Toluca Lake, California. Shortly thereafter, the Company's predecessor began developing and franchising additional restaurants. The Company was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1976 with the name IHOP Corp. In November 2007, the Company completed the acquisition of Applebee's International, Inc., which became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. Effective June 2, 2008, the name of the Company was changed to DineEquity, Inc. and on February 20, 2018, the name of the Company was changed to Dine Brands Global, Inc.SM (“Dine Brands Global,” “we” or “our”). Through various subsidiaries (see Exhibit 21, Subsidiaries of Dine Brands Global, Inc.), we own, franchise and operate the Applebee's Neighborhood Grill + Bar® (“Applebee's”) concept in the bar and grill segment within the casual dining category of the restaurant industry and we own and franchise the International House of Pancakes® (“IHOP”) concept in the family dining category of the restaurant industry. References herein to Applebee's® and IHOP® restaurants are to these two concepts, whether operated by franchisees, area licensees or us.
Domestically, Applebee's and IHOP franchise restaurants are in all 50 states and two IHOP franchise restaurants are in the District of Columbia. Internationally, IHOP restaurants are in three United States territories and 12 countries outside of the United States; Applebee's restaurants are in two United States territories and 13 countries outside of the United States. With nearly 3,700 restaurants combined, we believe we are the largest full-service restaurant company in the world. The June 18, 2018 issue of Nation's Restaurant News reported that IHOP and Applebee's were the largest restaurant systems in the family dining and casual dining categories, respectively, in terms of United States system-wide sales during 2017. This marks the eleventh consecutive year our two brands have achieved the number one ranking in Nation's Restaurant News.
We have a 52/53 week fiscal year ending on the Sunday nearest to December 31 of each year. For convenience, in this annual report on Form 10-K, we refer to all fiscal years as ending on December 31 and all interim fiscal quarters as ending on March 31, June 30 and September 30 of the respective fiscal year. There were 52 calendar weeks in our 2018, 2017 and 2016 fiscal years that ended on December 30, 2018, December 31, 2017 and January 1, 2017, respectively.
Executive Summary of 2018 Results
Overview
We reported net income of $80.4 million, or $4.37 per diluted share in 2018, compared to a loss of $342.7 million generated in 2017 that was primarily due to impairment charges taken in the third quarter of 2017 related to Applebee's goodwill and intangible assets;
Our gross profit grew $14.4 million, primarily due to an increase in gross profit from franchise operations;
Applebee's domestic same-restaurant sales grew 5.0% in 2018, the largest annual increase since our acquisition of the brand in 2007;
IHOP's reported system-wide sales grew 3.9% in 2018 driven by an increase in franchise restaurants due to development and a 1.5% increase in domestic same-restaurant sales;
The combined system-wide sales of both brands grew to nearly $7.6 billion, a 3.0% increase compared to 2017.

31



We generated cash from operating activities of $140.3 million and adjusted free cash flow (cash provided by operating activities, plus receipts from notes and equipment contract receivables, less additions to property and equipment) of $140.9 million in 2018;
We returned nearly $85 million to our stockholders, comprised of $51.1 million in cash dividends and $33.6 million in the form of stock repurchases;
IHOP franchisees opened 71 new restaurants worldwide, with net development of 45 restaurants. Applebee's franchisees closed 106 restaurants worldwide, with a net reduction of 99 restaurants. Taken together, the total number of our restaurants declined by less than 1% from last year's total; and
IHOP franchisees remodeled 270 domestic restaurants in 2018 under our new Rise ‘N’ Shine design. A total of 890 restaurants have been remodeled since the Rise ‘N’ Shine design was announced in late 2015.
Key Performance Indicators

An overview of our key performance indicators for the year ended December 31, 2018 is as follows:
 
Applebee's
 
IHOP
Sales percentage increase
2.3
%
 
3.9
%
% increase in domestic same-restaurant sales
5.0
%
 
1.5
%
Net franchise restaurant (reduction) development (1)
(99
)
 
45

Net (decrease) increase in effective franchise restaurants
(87
)
 
55

________________________________________
(1) Franchise and area license restaurant openings, net of closings
 Financial Summary

 
2018
 
Favorable
(Unfavorable) Variance
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
(as adjusted)
 
 
 
(In millions, except per share amounts)
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
$
110.6

 
$
538.9

 
$
(428.3
)
 
Income tax (provision) benefit
 
(30.2
)
 
(115.8
)
 
85.6

 
Net income (loss)
 
$
80.4

 
$
423.1

 
$
(342.7
)
 
 
 
 
 
Variance
 
 
 
Effective tax rate
 
27.4
%
 
(7.4
)%
 
20.0
%
 
Net income (loss) per diluted share
 
$
4.37

 
$
23.33

 
$
(18.96
)
 
Weighted average diluted shares outstanding
 
17.8

 
(0.1
)
 
17.7

 
Income before income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2018 increased $538.9 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The primary reasons for the increase are summarized as follows:
 
(In millions)
Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets taken in 2017 that did not recur
$
531.6

Increase in gross profit:
 
Franchise operations
12.9

All other operations
1.5

Total gross profit increase
14.4

Change in General and Administrative (“G&A”) expenses:
 
Decrease due to executive separation costs in 2017 that did not recur
8.8

Increase in all other G&A, net
(9.8
)
Total G&A increase
(1.0
)
Other expense/income items, net
(6.1
)
Increase in income before income taxes
$
538.9


On January 1, 2018, we adopted the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) using the full retrospective method. Accordingly, previously reported financial information has been adjusted to reflect the application of ASC 606 to the comparative 2017 and 2016 periods presented. The retrospective adoption of ASC 606 increased our net loss for the year ended December 31, 2017 by $12.2 million (approximately $0.68 per diluted share) and increased our net income for the year ended December 31, 2016 by $3.0 million (approximately $0.16 per diluted share). See Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion of our adoption of ASC 606.

32



Key Performance Indicators

In evaluating the performance of each restaurant concept, we consider the key performance indicators to be the system-wide sales percentage change, the percentage change in domestic system-wide same-restaurant sales (“domestic same-restaurant sales”), net franchise restaurant development and the change in effective franchise restaurants. Changes in both domestic same-restaurant sales and in the number of Applebee's and IHOP franchise restaurants will impact our system-wide retail sales that drive franchise royalty revenues. Restaurant development also impacts franchise revenues in the form of initial franchise fees and, in the case of IHOP restaurants, sales of proprietary pancake and waffle dry mix.

System-wide Sales and Domestic Same-Restaurant Sales

The following table sets forth for each of the past three years the number of “Effective Restaurants” in the Applebee’s and IHOP systems and information regarding the percentage change in sales at those restaurants compared to the same periods in the prior two years. Sales at restaurants that are owned by franchisees and area licensees are not attributable to the Company and, as such, the percentage changes in sales presented below are based on non-GAAP sales data. However, we believe that presentation of this information is useful in analyzing our revenues because franchisees and area licensees pay us royalties and advertising fees that are generally based on a percentage of their sales, and, where applicable, rental payments under leases that partially may be based on a percentage of their sales. Management also uses this information to make decisions about future plans for the development of additional restaurants as well as evaluation of current operations.
Applebee's Restaurant Data
Year Ended December 31,
Global Effective Restaurants:(a)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Franchise
1,883

 
1,970

 
2,027

Company
3

 

 

Total
1,886

 
1,970

 
2,027

System-wide:(b)
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic sales percentage change(c)
2.3
%
 
(6.8
)%
 
(6.8
)%
Domestic same-restaurant sales change(d)
5.0
%
 
(5.3
)%
 
(5.0
)%
Franchise:(b)
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic sales percentage change(c)
2.1
%
 
(6.8
)%
 
(6.2
)%
Domestic same-restaurant sales change(d)
4.9
%
 
(5.3
)%
 
(5.0
)%
Domestic average weekly unit sales (in thousands)
$
46.7

 
$
43.6

 
$
45.3

IHOP Restaurant Data
 
 
 
 
 
Global Effective Restaurants:(a)
 
 
 
 
 
Franchise
1,633

 
1,576

 
1,517

Area license
162

 
164

 
166

Company

 
5

 
10

Total
1,795

 
1,745

 
1,693

System-wide:(b)
 
 
 
 
 
Sales percentage change(c)
3.9
%
 
0.7
 %
 
(0.3
)%
Domestic same-restaurant sales change(d)
1.5
%
 
(1.9
)%
 
(0.1
)%
Franchise:(b)
 
 
 
 
 
Sales percentage change(c)
4.4
%
 
1.2
 %
 
(0.3
)%
Domestic same-restaurant sales change(d)
1.5
%
 
(1.9
)%
 
(0.1
)%
Average weekly unit sales (in thousands)
$
36.6

 
$
36.3

 
$
37.3

Area License:(b)
 
 
 
 
 
IHOP sales percentage change(c)
0.5
%
 
(0.7
)%
 
0.6
 %
_________________________________
(a) 
“Global Effective Restaurants” are the weighted average number of restaurants open in a given fiscal period, adjusted to account for restaurants open for only a portion of the period. Information is presented for all Effective Restaurants in the Applebee’s and IHOP systems, domestic and international, which includes restaurants owned by franchisees and area licensees as well as those owned by the Company.

33



(b) 
“System-wide sales” are retail sales at Applebee’s restaurants operated by franchisees and IHOP restaurants operated by franchisees and area licensees, as reported to the Company, in addition to retail sales at company-operated restaurants.  Sales at restaurants that are owned by franchisees and area licensees are not attributable to the Company. An increase or decrease in franchisees' reported sales will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in our royalty revenue. Unaudited reported sales for Applebee's domestic franchise restaurants, IHOP franchise restaurants and IHOP area license restaurants for the years ended December 31, 2018, December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 and sale at company-operated restaurants were as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
Reported sales
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Applebee's domestic franchise restaurant sales
$
4,204.1

 
$
4,117.1

 
$
4,418.6

Applebee's company-operated restaurants
7.1

 

 

IHOP franchise restaurant sales
3,106.7

 
2,974.6

 
2,939.9

IHOP area license restaurant sales
282.0

 
280.6

 
282.5

IHOP company-operated restaurants

 
7.5

 
17.4

Total
$
7,599.9

 
$
7,379.8

 
$
7,658.4


(c) 
“Sales percentage change” reflects, for each category of restaurants, the percentage change in sales in any given fiscal year compared to the prior fiscal year for all restaurants in that category. The sales percentage change for the year ended December 31, 2016 was impacted by a 53rd calendar week in fiscal year 2015.

(d) 
“Domestic same-restaurant sales change” reflects the percentage change in sales in any given fiscal year, compared to the same weeks in the prior year, for domestic restaurants that have been operated throughout both fiscal years that are being compared and have been open for at least 18 months. Because of new unit openings and restaurant closures, the domestic restaurants open throughout the fiscal years being compared may be different from year to year. Domestic same-restaurant sales percentage change does not include data on IHOP area license restaurants.

Domestic Same-Restaurant Sales Trends
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12724948&doc=22
 Applebee’s domestic same-restaurant sales increased 3.5% for the three months ended December 31, 2018 from the same period in 2017, the fifth consecutive quarter of growth in same-restaurant sales. The increase in the fourth quarter of 2018 was primarily due to an increase in average customer check that was partially offset by a decrease in customer traffic. We believe the decrease in traffic during the fourth quarter was due in part to the comparison to a strong fourth quarter of 2017 during which we first introduced promotional initiatives that effectively increased customer traffic. Applebee's same-restaurant sales increase for the fourth quarter of 2018 exceeded that of the casual dining segment of the restaurant industry. Based on data from Black Box Intelligence, a restaurant sales reporting firm (“Black Box”), the casual dining segment of the restaurant industry experienced an increase in same-restaurant sales during the fourth quarter of 2018 resulting from an increase in average customer check that was offset by a decline in customer traffic.

For the full year ended December 31, 2018, Applebee’s domestic same-restaurant sales increased 5.0%, more than a 1,000 basis point improvement over a 5.3% decrease in 2017. The increase in domestic same-restaurant sales for the full year 2018 was primarily due to an increase in customer traffic, as well as an increase in average customer check. For the full year 2018,

34



Applebee's substantially outperformed the casual dining segment, primarily with respect to traffic. Based on data from Black Box, the casual dining segment's increase in same-restaurant sales was smaller than Applebee's and was due to a decline in traffic that was partially offset by an increase in average customer check.

We believe Applebee's significantly outperformed the casual dining segment due to a multi-faceted strategy we began implementing in the latter half of 2017. The goal of that strategy was to redefine the Applebee's brand identity and culture and reconnect with our core customer base. Our recent marketing, culinary and operational initiatives appear to have resonated positively with our guests as an increase in customer traffic was primarily responsible for the 5.0% increase in domestic same-restaurant sales in 2018. The increase in traffic was driven, in part, by growth in our off-premise business (Carside-to-Go take-home and, to a lesser degree, third-party delivery). Delivery was available at 771 Applebee's restaurants by the end of 2018 as compared to 260 at the end of 2017.


http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12724948&doc=23
IHOP’s domestic same-restaurant sales increased 3.0% for the three months ended December 31, 2018. The increase in the fourth quarter of 2018 was primarily due to an increase in average customer check driven by a favorable mix shift and a larger size of party. The increase in customer check was partially offset by a slight decline in customer traffic. We believe the improvement in IHOP's domestic same-restaurant sales in the fourth quarter of 2018 compared to the third quarter of 2018 was due to a successful promotional tie-in with The Grinch movie along with growth in our “IHOP 'N Go” off-premise business. IHOP's performance for fourth quarter 2018 exceeded that of the family dining segment of the restaurant industry. Based on data from Black Box, during the fourth quarter of 2018, the family dining segment had an increase in same-restaurant sales due to small increases in both traffic and average customer check. IHOP's increase in average customer check was substantially larger than the increase in the family dining segment.

For the full year ended December 31, 2018, IHOP's domestic same-restaurant sales increased 1.5%. The increase for the full year 2018 was due to an increase in average customer check partially offset by a decline in customer traffic. IHOP's performance for the full year of 2018 surpassed that of the family dining segment of the restaurant industry. Based on data from Black Box, for the full year of 2018, the family dining segment had a decrease in same-restaurant sales due primarily to a decrease in customer traffic, partially offset by an increase in average check. IHOP's increase in average check was larger than that of the family dining segment, and IHOP's decrease in traffic was smaller than that of the family dining segment. The increase in domestic same-restaurant sales was driven, in part, by growth in our off-premise business (IHOP ‘N’ Go take-home and, to a lesser degree, third-party delivery). We tested delivery with third-party delivery service providers at several hundred locations in the first half of 2018. We expanded these partnerships system-wide in July and by the end of 2018, delivery was available at over 1,000 IHOP restaurants.
 

35



Net Franchise Restaurant Development
The total number of Applebee's restaurants open at December 31, 2018 declined 5.1% from the number open at December 31, 2017 as franchisees opened seven new restaurants but closed 106 restaurants. Restaurant closures can occur for a variety of reasons that may differ for each restaurant and for each franchisee. Closures generally fall into one of two categories: restaurants in older locations whose retail, residential and traffic demographics have changed unfavorably over time, and restaurants with non-viable unit economics. The majority of Applebee's restaurant closures in 2018 were due to these factors.
IHOP franchisees and area licensees opened 71 restaurants in 2018 and closed 26 restaurants, resulting in net development of 45 restaurants. We believe the IHOP closures were primarily due to natural attrition as the total number of closures in 2018 was only slightly higher than the average annual closure rate of 21 restaurants per year over the past five years.
Internationally, franchisees of both brands opened 22 restaurants and closed 21, for net development of one restaurant. The international development activity is included in the total activity for each brand cited above.
The following tables summarize Applebee's and IHOP restaurant development and franchising activity over the past three years:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Applebee's Restaurant Development Activity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Applebee's restaurants, beginning of period
1,936

 
2,016

 
2,033

Domestic
1,782

 
1,858

 
1,878

International
154

 
158

 
155

 
 
 
 
 
 
Franchise restaurants opened:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
2

 
10

 
19

International
5

 
9

 
10

Total franchise restaurants opened
7

 
19

 
29

Franchise restaurants closed:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
(91
)
 
(86
)
 
(39
)
International
(15
)
 
(13
)
 
(7
)
Total franchise restaurants closed
(106
)
 
(99
)
 
(46
)
Net franchise restaurant reduction
(99
)
 
(80
)
 
(17
)
Franchise restaurants acquired by the Company
(69
)
 

 

Net franchise restaurant decrease
(168
)
 
(80
)
 
(17
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary - end of period:
 
 
 
 
 
Franchise
1,768

 
1,936

 
2,016

Company restaurants (a)
69

 

 

Total Applebee's restaurants, end of period
1,837

 
1,936

 
2,016

Domestic
1,693

 
1,782

 
1,858

International
144

 
154

 
158

% Decrease in total Applebee's restaurants from prior year
(5.1
)%
 
(4.0
)%
 
(0.8
)%

(a) In December 2018, the Company acquired 69 Applebee's restaurants from a former franchisee.


36



 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
IHOP Restaurant Development Activity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary - beginning of period:
 
 
 
 
 
Franchise
1,622

 
1,556

 
1,507

Area license
164

 
167

 
165

Company(a)

 
10

 
11

Total IHOP restaurants, beginning of period
1,786

 
1,733

 
1,683

Domestic
1,671

 
1,637

 
1,604

International
115

 
96

 
79

 
 
 
 
 
 
Franchise/area license restaurants opened:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic franchise
51

 
48

 
43

Domestic area license
3

 
1

 
3

International franchise
17

 
28

 
20

Total franchise/area license restaurants opened
71

 
77

 
66

Franchise/area license restaurants closed:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic franchise
(15
)
 
(11
)
 
(12
)
Domestic area license
(5
)
 
(3
)
 
(1
)
International franchise
(6
)
 
(8
)
 
(3
)
International area license

 
(1
)
 

Total franchise/area license restaurants closed
(26
)
 
(23
)
 
(16
)
Net franchise/area license restaurant development
45

 
54

 
50

Refranchised from Company restaurants
1

 
9

 
1

Franchise restaurants reacquired by the Company
(1
)
 

 

Net franchise/area license restaurant additions
45

 
63

 
51

 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary - end of period:
 
 
 
 
 
Franchise
1,669

 
1,622

 
1,556

Area license